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The effect of adding clonidine to local anesthetics for nerve or plexus blocks remains unclear. The authors searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials testing the impact of adding clonidine to local anesthetics for peripheral single-injection nerve or plexus blocks in adults undergoing any surgery (except eye) without general anesthesia. Twenty(More)
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is known to be analgesic and to induce psychomimetic effects. Benefits and risks of ketamine for the control of postoperative pain are not well understood. We systematically searched for randomised comparisons of ketamine with inactive controls in surgical patients, reporting on pain outcomes, opioid(More)
Intrathecal morphine without local anaesthetic is often added to a general anaesthetic to prevent pain after major surgery. Quantification of benefit and harm and assessment of dose-response are needed. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials testing intrathecal morphine alone (without local anaesthetic) in adults undergoing major surgery under(More)
BACKGROUND With African health-care systems facing exploding demand for HIV care, reliable methods for assessing adherence and its influencing factors are needed to guide effective public-health measures. This study evaluated individual patient characteristics determining antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and the predictive values of different(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activates sodium channels in Type II alveolar epithelial cells, an important mechanism for the reported fluid resorption capacity of the cytokine. Both TNF-alpha receptor-dependent and -independent effects were proposed for this activity in vitro, the latter mechanism mediated by the lectin-like domain of the(More)
Opioids are widely used as additives to local anesthetics for intrathecal anesthesia. Benefit and risk remain unclear. We systematically searched databases and bibliographies to February 2011 for full reports of randomized comparisons of any opioid added to any intrathecal local anesthetic with the local anesthetic alone in adults undergoing surgery (except(More)
OBJECTIVE To study journals' responses to a request from the State Medical Association of Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, to retract 88 articles due to ethical concerns, and to check whether the resulting retractions followed published guidelines. DESIGN Descriptive cross-sectional study. POPULATION 88 articles (18 journals) by the anaesthesiologist Dr.(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine whether, according to the conclusions of a 2000 systematic review with meta-analysis on interventions to prevent pain from propofol injection that provided a research agenda to guide further research on the topic, subsequently published trials were more often optimally blinded, reported on children, and used the most efficacious(More)
We tested whether the combination of a reduced dose of a local anesthetic (LA) with an opioid compared with a standard dose of the same LA alone guaranteed adequate intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia and decreased LA-related adverse effects. We systematically searched (to November 2012) for randomized comparisons of combinations of a(More)
BACKGROUND Tuberculosis is a public health problem in Cameroon, just like in many other countries in the world. The National Tuberculosis Control Programme (PNLT) put in place by the state, aims to fight tuberculosis through the implementation of international directives (Directly Observed Treatment Short, DOTS). Despite the deployment of this strategy(More)