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The authors analyzed data from 52 randomized placebo-controlled trials (4,893 adults) testing acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors given in conjunction with morphine after surgery. The median of the average 24-h morphine consumption in controls was 49 mg (range, 15-117 mg); it was significantly(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify benefit and harm of epidural analgesia, compared with systemic opioid analgesia, in adults having surgery under general anesthesia. BACKGROUND It remains controversial whether adding epidural analgesia to general anesthesia decreases postoperative morbidity and mortality. METHODS We searched CENTRAL, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, and(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the impact of epidural vs systemic analgesia on postoperative pulmonary complications. DATA SOURCES Search of databases (1966 to March 2006) and bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION Inclusion criteria were randomized comparison of epidural vs systemic analgesia lasting 24 hours or longer postoperatively and reporting of pulmonary(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Clonidine is added to intrathecal local anesthetics to improve intraoperative analgesia and to increase the duration of sensory and motor block. The aim of this systematic review is to quantify beneficial and harmful effects of clonidine when used as an adjuvant to intrathecal local anesthetics for surgery. METHODS We included(More)
The effect of adding clonidine to local anesthetics for nerve or plexus blocks remains unclear. The authors searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials testing the impact of adding clonidine to local anesthetics for peripheral single-injection nerve or plexus blocks in adults undergoing any surgery (except eye) without general anesthesia. Twenty(More)
BACKGROUND With African health-care systems facing exploding demand for HIV care, reliable methods for assessing adherence and its influencing factors are needed to guide effective public-health measures. This study evaluated individual patient characteristics determining antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and the predictive values of different(More)
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is known to be analgesic and to induce psychomimetic effects. Benefits and risks of ketamine for the control of postoperative pain are not well understood. We systematically searched for randomised comparisons of ketamine with inactive controls in surgical patients, reporting on pain outcomes, opioid(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic α2 agonists are believed to reduce pain and opioid requirements after surgery, thus decreasing the incidence of opioid-related adverse effects, including hyperalgesia. METHODS The authors searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials testing systemic α2 agonists administrated in surgical patients and reporting on postoperative(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activates sodium channels in Type II alveolar epithelial cells, an important mechanism for the reported fluid resorption capacity of the cytokine. Both TNF-alpha receptor-dependent and -independent effects were proposed for this activity in vitro, the latter mechanism mediated by the lectin-like domain of the(More)
CONTEXT Droperidol is widely used for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in European countries. It is unclear how efficacious low-dose droperidol is in the prevention of PONV. OBJECTIVES To test the efficacy of low-dose droperidol in the prevention of PONV in adults and to test for dose-responsiveness. DESIGN Systematic review of(More)