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The authors analyzed data from 52 randomized placebo-controlled trials (4,893 adults) testing acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors given in conjunction with morphine after surgery. The median of the average 24-h morphine consumption in controls was 49 mg (range, 15-117 mg); it was significantly(More)
Ketamine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, is known to be analgesic and to induce psychomimetic effects. Benefits and risks of ketamine for the control of postoperative pain are not well understood. We systematically searched for randomised comparisons of ketamine with inactive controls in surgical patients, reporting on pain outcomes, opioid(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic α2 agonists are believed to reduce pain and opioid requirements after surgery, thus decreasing the incidence of opioid-related adverse effects, including hyperalgesia. METHODS The authors searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials testing systemic α2 agonists administrated in surgical patients and reporting on postoperative(More)
BACKGROUND With African health-care systems facing exploding demand for HIV care, reliable methods for assessing adherence and its influencing factors are needed to guide effective public-health measures. This study evaluated individual patient characteristics determining antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence and the predictive values of different(More)
The effect of adding clonidine to local anesthetics for nerve or plexus blocks remains unclear. The authors searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials testing the impact of adding clonidine to local anesthetics for peripheral single-injection nerve or plexus blocks in adults undergoing any surgery (except eye) without general anesthesia. Twenty(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the impact of epidural vs systemic analgesia on postoperative pulmonary complications. DATA SOURCES Search of databases (1966 to March 2006) and bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION Inclusion criteria were randomized comparison of epidural vs systemic analgesia lasting 24 hours or longer postoperatively and reporting of pulmonary(More)
CONTEXT Dexamethasone is widely used to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in pediatric tonsillectomy. OBJECTIVE To assess whether dexamethasone dose-dependently reduces the risk of PONV at 24 hours after tonsillectomy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted among 215 children undergoing elective(More)
BACKGROUND Intraoperative high inspired oxygen fraction (FIO2) is thought to reduce the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) and postoperative nausea and vomiting, and to promote postoperative atelectasis. METHODS The authors searched for randomized trials (till September 2012) comparing intraoperative high with normal FIO2 in adults undergoing(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify benefit and harm of epidural analgesia, compared with systemic opioid analgesia, in adults having surgery under general anesthesia. BACKGROUND It remains controversial whether adding epidural analgesia to general anesthesia decreases postoperative morbidity and mortality. METHODS We searched CENTRAL, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, and(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Clonidine is added to intrathecal local anesthetics to improve intraoperative analgesia and to increase the duration of sensory and motor block. The aim of this systematic review is to quantify beneficial and harmful effects of clonidine when used as an adjuvant to intrathecal local anesthetics for surgery. METHODS We included(More)