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The RNA polymerase II (Pol II)-type mechanism is conserved from yeast to human. After transcription initiation, Pol II usually pauses upstream of or in a nucleosome within the early transcribed region of a gene. Then Pol II overcomes the initial nucleosomal barrier and efficiently proceeds through chromatin. At a low to moderate transcription rate, Pol II(More)
Patients with erythematous Ixodes tick-borne relapsing fever were examined and their skin biopsy specimens were morphologically studied to reveal clinical, immunological and morphological features of erythematous Ixodes tick-borne relapsing fever. Two types of development of erythema migrans were identified. These include 1) a typical type that appears as(More)
The structures of some cryptogenes of previously unstudied species of homoxenous trypanosomatids that belong to different phylogenetic groups has been analyzed. New examples of the editing domain length reduction for A6 and COIII were found. A comparative analysis of the sequences allowed us to divide the cryptogenes into three groups (patterns) according(More)
Nucleosome forms a so-called nucleosome barrier, which is a serious difficulty for a transcriptional apparatus. We considered studies of formation and nucleosome barrier closing by some types of RNA polymerases. We showed that different polymerases use similar mechanisms for chromatin transcription. We present data testifying to the high similarity between(More)
Chromatin provides for the dense packing of DNA in eukaryotic cell nuclei and its proper functioning. The present review describes mechanisms of chromatin transcription by RNA polymerase III (RNAP III). This mechanism is characteristic of eukaryotic RNAP III, some bacteriophage RNAPs, and many ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. During the(More)
Transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels control endothelium barrier function and are triggered by several toxins from pathogenic bacteria that provoke vascular leakage. Cellular dewetting theory predicted that a line tension of uncharacterized origin works at TEM boundaries to limit their widening. Here, by conducting high-resolution microscopy(More)
Results of surgical treatment of 81 patients with recurrent goiter and 79 patients with benign nodular forms of goiter are analyzed. Based on clinical data, results of ultrasonic and histological examinations, it was determined that recurrence of goiter does not depend on volume of surgery. It is seen in patients with subclinical forms of postoperative(More)
Dendritic spines are postsynaptic structures in neurons often having a mushroom-like shape. Physiological significance and cytoskeletal mechanisms that maintain this shape are poorly understood. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton maintains the biconcave shape of erythrocytes, but whether spectrins also determine the shape of nonerythroid cells is less(More)