Nader Shaikh

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BACKGROUND To our knowledge, the risk of renal scarring in children with a urinary tract infection (UTI) has not been systematically studied. OBJECTIVE To review the prevalence of acute and chronic renal imaging abnormalities in children after an initial UTI. METHODS We searched Medline and Embase for English-, French-, and Spanish-language articles(More)
BACKGROUND Knowledge of baseline risk of urinary tract infection can help clinicians make informed diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the pooled prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children by age, gender, race, and circumcision status. METHODS MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles(More)
BACKGROUND Recommendations vary regarding immediate antimicrobial treatment versus watchful waiting for children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media. METHODS We randomly assigned 291 children 6 to 23 months of age, with acute otitis media diagnosed with the use of stringent criteria, to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate or placebo for 10(More)
CONTEXT Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a frequently occurring pediatric illness that, if left untreated, can lead to permanent renal injury. Accordingly, accurate diagnosis of UTI is important. OBJECTIVE To review the diagnostic accuracy of symptoms and signs for the diagnosis of UTI in infants and children. DATA SOURCES A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE(More)
PURPOSE It has been suggested that in children with voiding dysfunction improper bladder emptying contributes to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and progressive renal scarring. Incomplete bladder emptying may be related to bladder-sphincter dyssynergia. Ultrasonography and uroflowmetry are used in the initial evaluation of many children with(More)
BACKGROUND Lack of agreed-upon diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media (AOM) has led to inconsistencies in clinical care, misleading research results, and misguided educational efforts. The objective of this study was to examine findings that expert otoscopists use when diagnosing AOM. METHODS A group of experienced otoscopists examined 783 children(More)
OBJECTIVE Our goal is to determine if antimicrobial prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrent urinary tract infections and renal scarring in children who are found to have vesicoureteral reflux after a first or second urinary tract infection. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND METHODS The Randomized Intervention for Children With(More)
BACKGROUND Little generalizable information is available on the outcomes of children diagnosed with bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) after a urinary tract infection (UTI). Our objectives were to describe the clinical characteristics of children with BBD and to examine the effects of BBD on patient outcomes in children with and without vesicoureteral(More)
IMPORTANCE Existing data regarding the association between delayed initiation of antimicrobial therapy and the development of renal scarring are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To determine whether delay in the initiation of antimicrobial therapy for febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) is associated with the occurrence and severity of renal scarring. (More)
OBJECTIVES Prevalence estimates can help clinicians make informed decisions regarding diagnostic testing of children who present with symptoms of pharyngitis. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the (1) prevalence of streptococcal infection among children who presented with sore throat and (2) prevalence of streptococcal carriage among asymptomatic(More)