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BACKGROUND Knowledge of baseline risk of urinary tract infection can help clinicians make informed diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the pooled prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children by age, gender, race, and circumcision status. METHODS MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles(More)
IMPORTANCE Existing data regarding the association between delayed initiation of antimicrobial therapy and the development of renal scarring are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE To determine whether delay in the initiation of antimicrobial therapy for febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) is associated with the occurrence and severity of renal scarring. (More)
BACKGROUND Recommendations vary regarding immediate antimicrobial treatment versus watchful waiting for children younger than 2 years of age with acute otitis media. METHODS We randomly assigned 291 children 6 to 23 months of age, with acute otitis media diagnosed with the use of stringent criteria, to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate or placebo for 10(More)
IMPORTANCE A child's health, positive perceptions of the research team and consent process, and altruistic motives play significant roles in the decision-making process for parents who consent for their child to enroll in clinical research. This study identified that nonconsenting parents were better educated, had private insurance, showed lower levels of(More)
OBJECTIVE To update the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical practice guideline regarding the diagnosis and management of acute bacterial sinusitis in children and adolescents. METHODS Analysis of the medical literature published since the last version of the guideline (2001). RESULTS The diagnosis of acute bacterial sinusitis is made when a child(More)
IMPORTANCE No studies have systematically examined the accuracy of clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables in detecting renal scarring in children and adolescents with a first urinary tract infection. OBJECTIVES To identify independent prognostic factors for the development of renal scarring and to combine these factors in prediction models that could(More)
OBJECTIVE It has been suggested that urinary tract infections (UTIs) early in life predispose to dysfunctional elimination syndrome (DES). This study evaluated the relationship between early UTI, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and DES by comparing two cohorts of school-aged children. METHODS The UTI cohort (n = 123) included children previously enrolled in(More)
BACKGROUND To our knowledge, the risk of renal scarring in children with a urinary tract infection (UTI) has not been systematically studied. OBJECTIVE To review the prevalence of acute and chronic renal imaging abnormalities in children after an initial UTI. METHODS We searched Medline and Embase for English-, French-, and Spanish-language articles(More)
OBJECTIVE Our goal is to determine if antimicrobial prophylaxis with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole prevents recurrent urinary tract infections and renal scarring in children who are found to have vesicoureteral reflux after a first or second urinary tract infection. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND METHODS The Randomized Intervention for Children With(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify risk factors for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal scarring in children who have had 1 or 2 febrile or symptomatic UTIs and received no antimicrobial prophylaxis. METHODS This 2-year, multisite prospective cohort study included 305 children aged 2 to 71 months with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) receiving placebo in the(More)