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BACKGROUND Thermogenic brown adipose tissue has never been described in birds or other non-mammalian vertebrates. Brown adipocytes in mammals are distinguished from the more common white fat adipocytes by having numerous small lipid droplets rather than a single large one, elevated numbers of mitochondria, and mitochondrial expression of the nuclear gene(More)
Ancient metazoan organisms arose from unicellular eukaryotes that had billions of years of genetic evolution behind them. The transcription factor networks present in single-celled ancestors at the origin of the Metazoa (multicellular animals) were already capable of mediating the switching of the unicellular phenotype among alternative states of gene(More)
Limb bud outgrowth in chicken embryos is initiated during the third day of development by Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 (FGF8) produced by the newly formed apical ectodermal ridge (AER). One of the earliest effects of this induction is a change in the properties of the limb field mesoderm leading to bulging of the limb buds from the body wall. Heintzelman et(More)
Bone marrow (BM) has long been considered a potential stem cell source for cardiac repair due to its abundance and accessibility. Although previous investigations have generated cardiomyocytes from BM, yields have been low, and far less than produced from ES or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Since differentiation of pluripotent cells is difficult(More)
WNT signaling has been shown to influence the development of the heart. Although recent data suggested that canonical WNTs promote the emergence and expansion of cardiac progenitors in the pregastrula embryo, it has long been accepted that once gastrulation begins, canonical WNT signaling needs to be suppressed for cardiac development to proceed. Yet, this(More)
This study examined transgenic mice whose expression of a β-galactosidase (lacZ) reporter is driven by a GATA6 gene enhancer. Previous investigations established that transcription of the transgene was associated with precardiac mesoderm and primary heart tube myocardium, which decreased progressively, so that its expression was no longer observed within(More)
Lithium is a commonly used drug for the treatment of bipolar disorder. At high doses, lithium becomes teratogenic, which is a property that has allowed this agent to serve as a useful tool for dissecting molecular pathways that regulate embryogenesis. This study was designed to examine the impact of lithium on heart formation in the developing frog for(More)
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