Nadeene Parker

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Mitochondria are potent producers of cellular superoxide, from complexes I and III of the electron transport chain, and mitochondrial superoxide production is a major cause of the cellular oxidative damage that may underlie degradative diseases and aging. This superoxide production is very sensitive to the proton motive force, so it can be strongly(More)
Leak of protons into the mitochondrial matrix during substrate oxidation partially uncouples electron transport from phosphorylation of ADP, but the functions and source of basal and inducible proton leak in vivo remain controversial. In the present study we describe an endogenous activation of proton conductance in mitochondria isolated from rat and mouse(More)
The transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1beta (PGC-1beta) has been implicated in important metabolic processes. A mouse lacking PGC-1beta (PGC1betaKO) was generated and phenotyped using physiological, molecular, and bioinformatic approaches. PGC1betaKO mice are generally viable and metabolically healthy.(More)
When mitochondrial function is compromised and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Deltapsi(m)) falls below a threshold, the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase can reverse, hydrolysing ATP to pump protons out of the mitochondrial matrix. Although this activity can deplete ATP and precipitate cell death, it is limited by the mitochondrial protein IF(1), an endogenous(More)
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common feature of the metabolic syndrome and toxic reactions to pharmacological drugs. Tamoxifen, (TMX) a widely used anti-breast cancer drug, can induce NASH and changes in plasma cholesterol levels through mechanisms that are unclear. We studied primary actions of TMX using a short-term treatment (5 days) that(More)
AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) signalling plays a key role in whole-body energy homoeostasis, although its precise role in pancreatic beta-cell function remains unclear. In the present study, we therefore investigated whether AMPK plays a critical function in beta-cell glucose sensing and is required for the maintenance of normal glucose homoeostasis.(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in the pathogenesis of several renal diseases. Although functional roles and metabolic demands differ among tubule segments, relatively little is known about the properties of mitochondria in different parts of the nephron. Clinically, the proximal tubule seems particularly vulnerable to mitochondrial toxicity. In(More)
The influence of N-acetyl-S-(1,2,3,4,4-pentachloro-1,3-butadienyl)-L-cysteine (NAc-PCBD) on cysteine conjugate beta-lyase in female rat kidney has been examined. After a single, non-nephrotoxic dose of NAc-PCBD (3 mg/kg), cytosolic beta-lyase enzyme activity was increased 1.5 to 3-fold commensurate with a corresponding increase in enzyme protein levels as(More)
The kinetics of proton transport through mammalian UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) expressed in yeast mitochondria were measured. There was little or no UCP1 activity in the absence of added palmitate, but significant activity in its presence. The activator 4-HNE (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) had little effect when added alone, but significantly enhanced proton(More)