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BACKGROUND In the conditioned fear paradigm, repeated pairing of an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) (e.g. electric shock) with a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) (e.g. bright light) results in a conditioned fear response to the light alone. Animal studies have shown that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition of conditioned fear responses,(More)
BACKGROUND The anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex play an important role in the inhibition of responses, as measured by the Stroop task, as well as in emotional regulation. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to use the Stroop(More)
Several studies have shown deficits in verbal declarative memory function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most of these studies have been performed in men with combat-related PTSD compared with healthy subjects; relatively little is known about memory function in women with abuse-related PTSD, or whether these effects are specific to PTSD or are a(More)
Preclinical studies show that animals with a history of chronic stress exposure have increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity following reexposure to stress. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have normal or decreased function of the HPA axis, however no studies have looked at the HPA response to(More)
Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hippocampal-based memory have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the administration of exogenous glucocorticoids has been shown to result in a transient verbal declarative memory impairment in healthy human subjects. The purpose of this study was to assess the(More)
Neuroimaging studies of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have revealed altered patterns of activity in medial prefrontal brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area implicated in affect regulation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to effectively treat PTSD symptoms, but there(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple genes have been implicated by association studies in altering inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predisposition. Paediatric patients often manifest more extensive disease and a particularly severe disease course. It is likely that genetic predisposition plays a more substantial role in this group. OBJECTIVE To identify the spectrum of(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent evidence suggests that autistic children may have significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Although constipation occurs in 2% to 5% of healthy children, its clinical diagnosis is often difficult in children with behavioral disorders. We thus aimed to assess the prevalence of fecal loading in autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms(More)
UNLABELLED A previous study found improvements in verbal declarative memory in patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) following one year of open-label paroxetine treatment. The purpose of the present study was to replicate prior findings and to extend the previous study by comparing the effects of paroxetine versus placebo on cognition in(More)
OBJECTIVE To clarify the relationship between depression and heart rate variability (HRV) in a sample of twins. Reduced HRV, a measure of autonomic dysfunction, has been linked to depression but many studies have inadequately controlled for familial and environmental factors. Furthermore, little is known about whether depression and HRV share common genetic(More)