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BACKGROUND In the conditioned fear paradigm, repeated pairing of an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US) (e.g. electric shock) with a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS) (e.g. bright light) results in a conditioned fear response to the light alone. Animal studies have shown that the amygdala plays a critical role in acquisition of conditioned fear responses,(More)
BACKGROUND The anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex play an important role in the inhibition of responses, as measured by the Stroop task, as well as in emotional regulation. Dysfunction of the anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to use the Stroop(More)
Several studies have shown deficits in verbal declarative memory function in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Most of these studies have been performed in men with combat-related PTSD compared with healthy subjects; relatively little is known about memory function in women with abuse-related PTSD, or whether these effects are specific to PTSD or are a(More)
Preclinical studies show that animals with a history of chronic stress exposure have increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity following reexposure to stress. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have normal or decreased function of the HPA axis, however no studies have looked at the HPA response to(More)
Alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and hippocampal-based memory have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the administration of exogenous glucocorticoids has been shown to result in a transient verbal declarative memory impairment in healthy human subjects. The purpose of this study was to assess the(More)
Neuroimaging studies of individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have revealed altered patterns of activity in medial prefrontal brain regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area implicated in affect regulation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to effectively treat PTSD symptoms, but there(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple genes have been implicated by association studies in altering inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predisposition. Paediatric patients often manifest more extensive disease and a particularly severe disease course. It is likely that genetic predisposition plays a more substantial role in this group. OBJECTIVE To identify the spectrum of(More)
BACKGROUND We explored the relationship of genetic variants of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, a key regulator of the serotonergic neurotransmission, with both depressive symptoms and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. METHODS AND RESULTS We genotyped 20 polymorphisms in 360 male twins (mean age, 54 years) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry.(More)
BACKGROUND Crohn's disease is a chronic debilitating disorder affecting a child's physical and emotional well-being. Recent emphasis on 'quality of life' (QOL) has led to re-evaluation of available medical treatments. AIM To assess prospectively change in QOL, clinical disease activity and intestinal mucosal inflammation in active paediatric Crohn's(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent evidence suggests that autistic children may have significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Although constipation occurs in 2% to 5% of healthy children, its clinical diagnosis is often difficult in children with behavioral disorders. We thus aimed to assess the prevalence of fecal loading in autistic children with gastrointestinal symptoms(More)