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Previous studies have shown that spinal L-type, N-type, and P-type Ca2+-channel blockers are effective in modulating pain behavior caused nerve injury. In the present work, using the loose ligation of the sciatic nerve model, we characterized the time course of the appearance of tactile and cold allodynia and the corresponding spinal expression of the(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a diffusible intercellular messenger, acting via volume signaling in the brain and, therefore, the knowledge of its temporal dynamics is determinant to the understanding of its neurobiological role. However, such an analysis in vivo is challenging and indirect or static approaches are mostly used to infer NO bioactivity. In the present(More)
The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is a key component of the stress response induced by various noxious conditions such as heat, oxygen stress, trauma and infection. In present study we have assessed the consequences of the compression of lower lumbar and sacral nerve roots caused by a multiple cauda equina constrictions (MCEC) on HSP70 immunoreactivity(More)
BACKGROUND Spasticity and rigidity are serious complications associated with spinal traumatic or ischemic injury. Clinical studies show that tizanidine (Tiz) is an effective antispasticity agent; however, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. Tiz binds not only to α2-adrenoreceptors (AR) but also to imidazoline (I) receptors. Both receptor(More)
Previous experiments have suggested that nitric oxide may play an important role in nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord. To assess the possible roles of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in spinal sensitization after nerve injury, we examined the distribution of nNOS immunoreactivity in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and dorsal horn of the(More)
1. The aim of the present study was to examine the distribution of unmyelinated, small-diameter myelinated neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactive (nNOS-IR) axons and large-diameter myelinated neuronal nitric oxide synthase and parvalbumin-immunoreactive (PV-IR) axons in the dorsal funiculus (DF) of sacral (S1-S3) and lumbar (L1-L7) segments of the(More)
AIM Spinal cord transection interrupts supraspinal input and leads to the development of prominent spasticity. In this study, we investigated the effect of rat spinal cord transection performed at low thoracic level on changes in (i) neuronal nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity (nNOS-IR), and (ii) the level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)(More)
A prolonged exposure to vibration stimuli triggers pathological changes with many later manifested symptoms. Early vibration-induced changes are still not very well explored. Therefore, short 30 min vibration period per day with frequency 60 Hz repeated for 10 days was used, and the retrograde axonal transport from the sciatic nerve, the expression of(More)
Achievement of effective, safe and long-term immunosuppression represents one of the challenges in experimental allogeneic and xenogeneic cell and organ transplantation. The goal of the present study was to develop a reliable, long-term immunosuppression protocol in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats by: 1) comparing the pharmacokinetics of four different(More)
1. The effect was examined of a single bout of nonexhaustive endurance exercise on tryptophan (Try), serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TpH) levels in different parts of rat brain (brain cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, midbrain striatum, medulla) on the last day of endurance training and 48 h later(More)