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Visual function and its specialization at the level of the retina were studied in 13 species of stomatopod crustaceans, representing three superfamilies: Gonodactyloidea, Lysiosquilloidea, and Squilloidea. We measured attenuation and irradiance spectra in the environment of each species, at the actual depths and times of activity where we observed(More)
Cephalopods are sensitive to the linear polarization characteristics of light. To examine if this polarization sensitivity plays a role in the predatory behavior of cuttlefish, we examined the preference of Sepia officinalis when presented with fish whose polarization reflection was greatly reduced versus fish whose polarization reflection was not affected.(More)
Polarisation sensitivity (PS) - the ability to detect the orientation of polarised light - occurs in a wide variety of invertebrates [1] [2] and vertebrates [3] [4] [5], many of which are marine species [1]. Of these, the crustacea are particularly well documented in terms of their structural [6] and neural [7] [8] adaptations for PS. The few behavioural(More)
1) Corresponding author’s address: Department of Biology, Millersville University of Pennsylvania, P.O. Box 1002, Millersville, PA 17555-0302, USA, jean.boal@millersville.edu 2) Hebrew University of Jerusalem, ESE Department, Interuniversity Institute for Marine Sciences, P.O. Box. 469, Eilat 88103, Israel, nadavs@cc.huji.ac.il 3) Boston University Marine(More)
Sensitivity to polarized light is widespread among marine animals, including crustaceans, cephalopods and some fishes. They use this ability to orient and find prey, and possibly for a number of other visual tasks. Unlike the ultraviolet-sensitive polarization receptors of most insects, the polarization receptors of marine invertebrates tend to be maximally(More)
This paper is the result of an international initiative and is a first attempt to develop guidelines for the care and welfare of cephalopods (i.e. nautilus, cuttlefish, squid and octopus) following the inclusion of this Class of ∼700 known living invertebrate species in Directive 2010/63/EU. It aims to provide information for investigators, animal care(More)
Giant and colossal deep-sea squid (Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom [1, 2], but there is no explanation for why they would need eyes that are nearly three times the diameter of those of any other extant animal. Here we develop a theory for visual detection in pelagic habitats, which predicts that such giant eyes(More)
Shallow-water zooplanktivorous fish rely on their vision for foraging. In shallow water, feeding efficiency decreases in dim light and thus the fish cease foraging at crepuscular hours. Creatures living in the lower parts of their depth ranges are expected to be exposed to limited light levels for longer hours. However, observations of the zooplanktivore(More)
In light of the deteriorating state of coral reefs worldwide, the need to rehabilitate marine environments has greatly increased. Artificial reefs (ARs) have been suggested as a tool for reef conservation and rehabilitation. Although successions of AR communities have been thoroughly studied, current understanding of the interactions between artificial and(More)
The increase in species richness with area is known as the species–area relationship (SPAR). Although several mutually non-exclusive processes may produce the SPAR, the null, often ignored, hypothesis states that a SPAR can be generated by random placement alone. The log–log-transformed SPAR of coral reef fishes on small patch-reefs revealed a steep slope(More)