Nadav Kashtan

Learn More
Complex networks are studied across many fields of science. To uncover their structural design principles, we defined "network motifs," patterns of interconnections occurring in complex networks at numbers that are significantly higher than those in randomized networks. We found such motifs in networks from biochemistry, neurobiology, ecology, and(More)
Complex biological, technological, and sociological networks can be of very different sizes and connectivities, making it difficult to compare their structures. Here we present an approach to systematically study similarity in the local structure of networks, based on the significance profile (SP) of small subgraphs in the network compared to randomized(More)
Biological networks have an inherent simplicity: they are modular with a design that can be separated into units that perform almost independently. Furthermore, they show reuse of recurring patterns termed network motifs. Little is known about the evolutionary origin of these properties. Current models of biological evolution typically produce networks that(More)
SUMMARY Biological and engineered networks have recently been shown to display network motifs: a small set of characteristic patterns that occur much more frequently than in randomized networks with the same degree sequence. Network motifs were demonstrated to play key information processing roles in biological regulation networks. Existing algorithms for(More)
R. Milo, 2 N. Kashtan, 3 S. Itzkovitz, 2 M. E. J. Newman, and U. Alon 2 Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 76100 Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel 76100 Department of Computer Science and Applied Mathematics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot,(More)
Simulations of biological evolution, in which computers are used to evolve systems toward a goal, often require many generations to achieve even simple goals. It is therefore of interest to look for generic ways, compatible with natural conditions, in which evolution in simulations can be speeded. Here, we study the impact of temporally varying goals on the(More)
Extensive genomic diversity within coexisting members of a microbial species has been revealed through selected cultured isolates and metagenomic assemblies. Yet, the cell-by-cell genomic composition of wild uncultured populations of co-occurring cells is largely unknown. In this work, we applied large-scale single-cell genomics to study populations of the(More)
Genes and proteins generate molecular circuitry that enables the cell to process information and respond to stimuli. A major challenge is to identify characteristic patterns in this network of interactions that may shed light on basic cellular mechanisms. Previous studies have analyzed aspects of this network, concentrating on either(More)
Biological systems are often modular: they can be decomposed into nearly-independent structural units that perform specific functions. The evolutionary origin of modularity is a subject of much current interest. Recent theory suggests that modularity can be enhanced when the environment changes over time. However, this theory has not yet been tested using(More)
Biological and technological networks contain patterns, termed network motifs, which occur far more often than in randomized networks. Network motifs were suggested to be elementary building blocks that carry out key functions in the network. It is of interest to understand how network motifs combine to form larger structures. To address this, we present a(More)