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During pancreas development, both the exocrine and endocrine lineages differentiate from a common pool of progenitor cells with similarities to mature pancreatic duct cells. A small set of transcription factors, including Tcf2, Onecut1, and Foxa2, has been identified in these pancreatic progenitor cells. The Sry/HMG box transcription factor Sox9 is also(More)
In various mammalian species, including humans, water restriction leads to an acute increase in urinary sodium excretion. This process, known as dehydration natriuresis, helps prevent further accentuation of hypernatremia and the accompanying rise in extracellular tonicity. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (Sgk1), which is expressed in the renal(More)
Transcriptional transactivators (Tat) from many lentiviruses interact with their cognate transactivation response RNA structures (TAR) to increase rates of elongation rather than initiation of transcription. For several of them, the complex of Tat and a species-specific cyclin T1 must be formed before the binding to TAR can occur with high affinity and(More)
Ankyrin repeats are well-known structural modules that mediate interactions between a wide spectrum of proteins. The regulatory factor X with ankyrin repeats (RFXANK) is a subunit of a tripartite RFX complex that assembles on promoters of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) genes. Although it is known that RFXANK plays a central role in the(More)
Bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) is an autosomal recessive severe-combined immunodeficiency that can result from mutations in four different transcription factors that regulate the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes. We have identified here the defective gene that is responsible for the phenotype of the putative fifth BLS(More)
All metazoans use insulin to control energy metabolism, but they secrete it from different cells: neurons in the central nervous system in invertebrates and endocrine cells in the gut or pancreas in vertebrates. Despite their origins in different germ layers, all of these insulin-producing cells share common functional features and gene expression patterns.(More)
The regulatory factor X (RFX) complex, which contains RFXANK(B), RFXAP, and RFX5, binds to X and S boxes in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) promoters. In the bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS), which is a human severe combined immunodeficiency, MHC II promoters are neither occupied nor transcribed. Thus, the absence of any one subunit(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) genes are regulated in a B-cell-specific and gamma interferon-inducible manner. Conserved upstream sequences (CUS) in their compact promoters bind nuclear factor Y (NFY) and regulatory factor X (RFX) complexes. These DNA-bound proteins form a platform that attracts the class II transactivator, which(More)
The type II bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS) or major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) deficiency is a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) that is characterized by the absence of constitutive and inducible expression of MHCII determinants on immune cells. Four complementation groups of BLS have been defined, and they result from mutations in(More)
Pancreatic islet cells and neurons share common functions and similar ontogenies, but originate in different germ layers. To determine whether ectoderm-derived cells contribute instructive signals to the developing endoderm-derived pancreas, we defined the chronology of migration and differentiation of neural crest cells in the pancreas, and tested their(More)