Nachiket Dilip Kashikar

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In the oviduct, cumulus cells that surround the oocyte release progesterone. In human sperm, progesterone stimulates a Ca(2+) increase by a non-genomic mechanism. The Ca(2+) signal has been proposed to control chemotaxis, hyperactivation and acrosomal exocytosis of sperm. However, the underlying signalling mechanism has remained mysterious. Here we show(More)
Sperm are attracted by chemical factors that are released by the egg-a process called chemotaxis. Most of our knowledge on sperm chemotaxis originates from the study of marine invertebrates. In recent years, the main features of the chemotactic signaling pathway and the swimming behavior evoked by chemoattractants have been elucidated in sea urchins. In(More)
The sperm-specific CatSper channel controls the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and, thereby, the swimming behaviour of sperm. In humans, CatSper is directly activated by progesterone and prostaglandins-female factors that stimulate Ca(2+) influx. Other factors including neurotransmitters, chemokines, and odorants also affect sperm function(More)
Eggs attract sperm by chemical factors, a process called chemotaxis. Sperm from marine invertebrates use cGMP signalling to transduce incident chemoattractants into changes in the Ca2+ concentration in the flagellum, which control the swimming behaviour during chemotaxis. The signalling pathway downstream of the synthesis of cGMP by a guanylyl cyclase is(More)
Sperm, navigating in a chemical gradient, are exposed to a periodic stream of chemoattractant molecules. The periodic stimulation entrains Ca(2+) oscillations that control looping steering responses. It is not known how sperm sample chemoattractant molecules during periodic stimulation and adjust their sensitivity. We report that sea urchin sperm sampled(More)
During chemotaxis and phototaxis, sperm, algae, marine zooplankton, and other microswimmers move on helical paths or drifting circles by rhythmically bending cell protrusions called motile cilia or flagella. Sperm of marine invertebrates navigate in a chemoattractant gradient by adjusting the flagellar waveform and, thereby, the swimming path. The waveform(More)
We report on a rapid high-frequency somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration protocol for Zea mays. Maize plants were regenerated from complete shoot meristem (3-4 mm) explants via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis. In organogenesis, the shoot meristems were directly cultured on a high-cytokinin medium comprising 5-10 mg x L(-1)(More)
We have developed an efficient protocol for callus induction and plant regeneration in three elite soybean cultivars (Williams 82, Loda and Newton). The technique is most novel in that the shoot buds developed from the nodal callus. Callus induction and subsequent shoot bud differentiation were achieved from the proximal end of cotyledonary explants on(More)
Guanylyl cyclases (GCs), which synthesize the messenger cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, control several sensory functions, such as phototransduction, chemosensation, and thermosensation, in many species from worms to mammals. The GC chemoreceptor in sea urchin sperm can decode chemoattractant concentrations with single-molecule sensitivity. The(More)
Sperm guidance is controlled by chemical and physical cues. In many species, Ca(2+) bursts in the flagellum govern navigation to the egg. In Arbacia punctulata, a model system of sperm chemotaxis, a cGMP signaling pathway controls these Ca(2+) bursts. The underlying Ca(2+) channel and its mechanisms of activation are unknown. Here, we identify CatSper(More)