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Necrosis can be induced by stimulating death receptors with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or other agonists; however, the underlying mechanism differentiating necrosis from apoptosis is largely unknown. We identified the protein kinase receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3) as a molecular switch between TNF-induced apoptosis and necrosis in NIH 3T3 cells and(More)
The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas belongs to one of the most species-rich but genomically poorly explored phyla, the Mollusca. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the oyster genome using short reads and a fosmid-pooling strategy, along with transcriptomes of development and stress response and the proteome of the shell. The oyster genome is(More)
Slit is a secreted protein known to function through the Roundabout (Robo) receptor as a chemorepellent in axon guidance and neuronal migration, and as an inhibitor in leukocyte chemotaxis. Here we show Slit2 expression in a large number of solid tumors and Robo1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Recombinant Slit2 protein attracted endothelial cells(More)
Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the highly infectious zoonotic disease tularemia. We have discovered a ca. 30-kb pathogenicity island of F. tularensis (FPI) that includes four large open reading frames (ORFs) of 2.5 to 3.9 kb and 13 ORFs of 1.5 kb or smaller. Previously, two small genes located near(More)
Although blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to explore human brain function, questions remain regarding the ultimate spatial resolution of positive BOLD fMRI, and indeed the extent to which functional maps revealed by positive BOLD correlate spatially with maps obtained with other(More)
A better understanding of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis at the molecular level will facilitate the discovery of tumor-initiating events. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that adenosine-to-inosine (A→I) RNA editing of AZIN1 (encoding antizyme inhibitor 1) is increased in HCC specimens. A→I editing of AZIN1 transcripts, specifically(More)
A comprehensive investigation was carried out to determine the changes that occurred in water-stressed cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) in response to melatonin treatment. We examined the potential roles of melatonin during seed germination and root generation and measured its effect on reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, antioxidant enzyme activities, and(More)
MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr); MRL-Fas(lpr)) mice develop a spontaneous lupus syndrome closely resembling human systemic lupus erythematosus. To define the role of IL-10 in the regulation of murine lupus, IL-10 gene-deficient (IL-10(-/-)) MRL-Fas(lpr) (MRL-Fas(lpr) IL-10(-/-)) mice were generated and their disease phenotype was compared with(More)
The aim of this study was to design and characterize lectin-modified solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) containing insulin and to evaluate the potential of the lectin-modified colloidal carriers for oral administration of peptide and protein drugs. SLNs were prepared by three different methods. For comparison, some insulin-loaded SLNs were modified with wheat(More)