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In the Drosophila midgut, multipotent intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that are scattered along the epithelial basement membrane maintain tissue homeostasis by their ability to steadily produce daughters that differentiate into either enterocytes or enteroendocrine cells, depending on the levels of Notch activity. However, the mechanisms controlling ISC(More)
Mammalian X inactivation turns off one female X chromosome to enact dosage compensation between XX and XY individuals. X inactivation is known to be regulated in cis by Xite, Tsix, and Xist, but in principle the two Xs must also be regulated in trans to ensure mutually exclusive silencing. Here, we demonstrate that interchromosomal pairing mediates this(More)
Pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells is controlled by defined transcription factors. During differentiation, mouse ES cells undergo global epigenetic reprogramming, as exemplified by X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in which one female X chromosome is silenced to achieve gene dosage parity between the sexes. Somatic XCI is regulated by homologous(More)
X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) ensures the equality of X-chromosome dosages in male and female mammals by silencing one X in the female. To achieve the mutually exclusive designation of active X (Xa) and inactive X (Xi), the process necessitates that two Xs communicate in trans through homologous pairing. Pairing depends on a 15-kb region within the genes(More)
In mammals, inactivation of one X chromosome in the female equalizes gene dosages between XX females and XY males. Two noncoding loci, Tsix and Xite, together regulate X chromosome fate by controlling homologous chromosome pairing, counting, and mutually exclusive choice. Following choice, the asymmetry of Xite and Tsix expression drives divergent(More)
Tissue-specific adult stem cells are commonly associated with local niche for their maintenance and function. In the adult Drosophila midgut, the surrounding visceral muscle maintains intestinal stem cells (ISCs) by stimulating Wingless (Wg) and JAK/STAT pathway activities, whereas cytokine production in mature enterocytes also induces ISC division and(More)
Drosophila and mammalian intestinal stem cells (ISCs) share similarities in their regulatory mechanisms, with both requiring Wingless (Wg)/Wnt signaling for their self-renewal, although additional regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we report the identification of Unpaired as another paracrine signal from the muscular niche, which activates a(More)
In 2008, Qingdao (36 degrees 06'N, 120 degrees 25'E, PR China) experienced the world largest drifting macroalgal bloom composed of the filamentous macroalga Ulva prolifera. No convincing biologic evidence regarding the algal source is available so far. A series of field collections of both Ulva sp. and waters in various sites along Jiangsu coasts were(More)
X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is initiated by expression of the noncoding Xist RNA in the female embryo. Tsix, the antisense noncoding partner of Xist, serves as its regulator during both imprinted and random XCI. Here, we show that Tsix in part acts through a 34mer repeat, DXPas34. DXPas34 contains bidirectional promoter activity, producing overlapping(More)
The region of Qingdao, China, experienced the world's largest green tide from May to July 2008. More than one million tons of fresh algal biomass of the green alga Ulva prolifera was harvested, while more was suspected to have sunk to the bottom. The original source of this seaweed was suspected to be from the south as revealed by satellite images. The(More)