Learn More
Mechanical stresses were applied directly to cell surface receptors with a magnetic twisting device. The extracellular matrix receptor, integrin beta 1, induced focal adhesion formation and supported a force-dependent stiffening response, whereas nonadhesion receptors did not. The cytoskeletal stiffness (ratio of stress to strain) increased in direct(More)
In addition to triggering the activation of B- or T-cell antigen receptors, the binding of a ligand to its receptor at the cell surface can sometimes determine the physiological outcome of interactions between antigen-presenting cells, T and B lymphocytes. The protein SLAM (also known as CDw150), which is present on the surface of B and T cells, forms such(More)
Tangier disease, a condition characterized by low levels of high density lipoprotein and cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, is caused by mutations in the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABC1. In cultured macrophages, ABC1 mRNA was induced in an additive fashion by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and 9-cis-retinoic acid (9CRA), suggesting induction by(More)
Alternative models of cell mechanics depict the living cell as a simple mechanical continuum, porous filament gel, tensed cortical membrane, or tensegrity network that maintains a stabilizing prestress through incorporation of discrete structural elements that bear compression. Real-time microscopic analysis of cells containing GFP-labeled microtubules and(More)
We have investigated how extracellular matrix (ECM) alters the mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton (CSK). Mechanical stresses were applied to integrin receptors on the apical surfaces of adherent endothelial cells using RGD-coated ferromagnetic microbeads (5.5-microns diameter) in conjunction with a magnetic twisting device. Increasing the number of(More)
Better characterization of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) in patients with primary infection has important implications for the development of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine because vaccine strategies should target viral isolates with the properties of transmitted viruses. In five HIV-1 seroconverters, the viral phenotype(More)
The objectives of this study were to compare approaches for evaluating the combined effects of chemical mixtures on the toxicity in field-collected sediments and to evaluate the ability of consensus-based probable effect concentrations (PECs) to predict toxicity in a freshwater database on both a national and regional geographic basis. A database was(More)
Loss of a vimentin network due to gene disruption created viable mice that did not differ overtly from wild-type littermates. Here, primary fibroblasts derived from vimentin-deficient (-/-) and wild-type (+/+) mouse embryos were cultured, and biological functions were studied in in vitro systems resembling stress situations. Stiffness of -/- fibroblasts was(More)
Telomerase activation through induction of its catalytic component telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) expression is essential for malignant transformation. TERT promoter mutations namely C228T and C250T that stimulate TERT transcription and telomerase activation have recently been identified in many human malignancies. We thus determined these(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the HIV/AIDS epidemic in mainland China. METHODS We review the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the social characteristics and geographic distribution of at-risk groups in China based on published literature and unpublished official data. RESULTS Injection drug use has been the dominant route for HIV infection in China, and(More)