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RMP-7 is a bradykinin B2 receptor agonist shown to permeabilize the blood-brain barrier, especially that associated with brain tumors, when administered via both intracarotid and intravenous routes. Both routes of administration are currently being tested in human trials in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent carboplatin as therapy for gliomas. As(More)
We investigated the effects of the different light emitting diodes (LEDs; red, green, blue, and mixed purple) on oxidative stress by measuring the expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes, plasma H2O2, lipid peroxidation (LPO), aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) levels, and melatonin during thermal stress (low-water(More)
The caspase-3 appears to be a key protease in the apoptotic pathway. We identified caspase-3 complementary DNAs from the ovaries of the protandrous cinnamon clownfish (Amphiprion melanopus), and investigated its mRNA and proteins, and activity levels during the sex change (I, mature male; II, male at 90 days after removing of the female; and III, mature(More)
Selenium (Se) is an essential element that has relevant roles in growth, immunity, and the protection of cell membranes in organisms under normal conditions. The aim of this study was to test the antioxidant and immune functions of goldfish Carassius auratus after Se treatment. At the end of the experiment, levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide(More)
The objective of this investigation was to quantify how thyroid hormone receptors of the sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, respond to salinity changes from freshwater (FW) to seawater (SW) conditions. Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mRNA and protein expressions levels significantly increased when the fish were transferred from FW to SW, and the plasma T3(More)
This study investigated the effects of increasing water temperature (22–30 °C) on the physiological stress response and immunity of goldfish, Carassius auratus, and the ability of green light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation or melatonin injections to mitigate this temperature-induced stress. To evaluate the effects of either green-wavelength LED light or(More)
We determined the molecular mechanism underlying the environmental (photoperiodic) regulation of sexual maturation in fish, we examined the expression of sexual maturation-related hormones and vertebrate ancient long opsin (VAL-opsin) in goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to different light spectra (red and green light-emitting diodes). We further(More)
Studies of memory formation have recently concentrated on the possible role of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NRs). We examined changes in the expression of three NRs (NR1, NR2B, and NR2C), olfactory receptor (OR), and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) during salinity(More)
Leptin plays an important role in energy homeostasis and reproductive function in fish, especially in reproduction. Migrating fish, such as salmonoids, are affected by external environmental factors, and salinity changes are a particularly important influence on spawning migrations. The aim of this study was to test whether changes in salinity affect the(More)
This study investigated the antioxidant system and the growth of marine cyanobacteria, Synechococcus sp., illuminated by white (350–700 nm), red (630 nm), green (530 nm) and blue (450 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) during 8 days of cultivation. We measured dry weight, total lipid concentration, antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, catalase and(More)
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