• Publications
  • Influence
Motivations for Play in Online Games
  • N. Yee
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Cyberpsychology Behav. Soc. Netw.
  • 1 December 2006
An empirical model of player motivations in online games provides the foundation to understand and assess how players differ from one another and how motivations of play relate to age, gender, usageExpand
The Demographics, Motivations, and Derived Experiences of Users of Massively Multi-User Online Graphical Environments
  • N. Yee
  • Psychology, Computer Science
  • PRESENCE: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments
  • 1 June 2006
An exploratory factor analysis revealed a five factor model of user motivations—Achievement, Relationship, Immersion, Escapism, and Manipulation—illustrating the multifaceted appeal of these online environments. Expand
The Proteus Effect: The Effect of Transformed Self-Representation on Behavior
Virtual environments, such as online games and web-based chat rooms, increasingly allow us to alter our digital self-representations dramatically and easily. But as we change ourExpand
Who plays, how much, and why? Debunking the stereotypical gamer profile
This study is the first to collect a combination of survey and behavioral data with the cooperation of a major virtual world operator, and the results defy common stereotypes in surprising and interesting ways and have implications for communication theory and for future investigations of games. Expand
"Alone together?": exploring the social dynamics of massively multiplayer online games
Observations show that the prevalence and extent of social activities in MMOGs might have been previously over-estimated, and that gaming communities face important challenges affecting their cohesion and eventual longevity. Expand
Problematic Internet use and psychosocial well-being among MMO players
Examination of problematic Internet use among people who play MMO games revealed that MMO gaming variables contributed a substantively small, but statistically significant amount of explained variance to PIU scores. Expand
Body and mind: a study of avatar personalization in three virtual worlds
The often-surprising choices users make when creating their digital representation are illustrated and the impact of the findings for the design of future avatar creation systems are discussed. Expand
The Labor of Fun
  • N. Yee
  • Computer Science
  • 1 January 2006
The microcosm of these online games may reveal larger social trends in the blurring boundaries between work and play. Expand
The life and death of online gaming communities: a look at guilds in world of warcraft
This paper examines some of the factors that could explain the success or failure of a game guild based on more than a year of data collected from five World of Warcraft servers, focusing on structural properties of these groups, as represented by their social networks and other variables. Expand
The Unbearable Likeness of Being Digital: The Persistence of Nonverbal Social Norms in Online Virtual Environments
Data from avatars were collected to explore whether social norms of gender, interpersonal distance (IPD), and eye gaze transfer into virtual environments even though the modality of movement is entirely different (i.e., via keyboard and mouse as opposed to eyes and legs). Expand