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Inflammatory and catabolic signalling in intervertebral discs: the roles of NF-κB and MAP kinases.
Painful intervertebral disc disease is characterised not only by an imbalance between anabolic (i.e., matrix synthesis) and catabolic (i.e., matrix degradation) processes, but also by inflammatoryExpand
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Expression and regulation of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in intervertebral disc aging and degeneration.
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Destruction of extracellular matrix (ECM) leads to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD), which underlies many spine-related disorders. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), andExpand
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Molecular mechanisms of biological aging in intervertebral discs
Advanced age is the greatest risk factor for the majority of human ailments, including spine‐related chronic disability and back pain, which stem from age‐associated intervertebral disc degenerationExpand
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Mitochondrial‐derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a causal role in aging‐related intervertebral disc degeneration
Oxidative damage is a well‐established driver of aging. Evidence of oxidative stress exists in aged and degenerated discs, but it is unclear how it affects disc metabolism. In this study, we firstExpand
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Injection of AAV2-BMP2 and AAV2-TIMP1 into the nucleus pulposus slows the course of intervertebral disc degeneration in an in vivo rabbit model.
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is a common cause of back pain. Patients who fail conservative management may face the morbidity of surgery. Alternative treatment modalitiesExpand
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p38 MAPK inhibition modulates rabbit nucleus pulposus cell response to IL‐1
Analysis of disc gene expression implicated IL‐1 in the development of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) in a rabbit stab model. The purpose of these studies is to determine the role of p38Expand
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Differentiation of Intervertebral Notochordal Cells Through Live Automated Cell Imaging System In Vitro
Study Design. We demonstrated the differentiation of notochordal cells by direct observation using a live automated cell imaging system. We also hypothesized that notochordal cells haveExpand
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p38 MAPK Inhibition in Nucleus Pulposus Cells: A Potential Target for Treating Intervertebral Disc Degeneration
Study Design. Human nucleus pulposus cells were cultured in alginate beads and activated with IL-1&bgr; or TNF-&agr;, with and without inhibition of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)Expand
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Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells React to IL-6: Independent Actions and Amplification of Response to IL-1 and TNF-&agr;
Study Design. Human nucleus pulposus cells were activated with IL-6 plus IL-6 soluble receptor (sR) in the presence or absence of IL-1&bgr; or TNF-&agr;. Cell production of factors modulating theExpand
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Effect of bupivacaine on intervertebral disc cell viability.
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Bupivacaine is a local anesthetic commonly used to relieve or control pain in interventional spine procedures. Bupivacaine has been shown to be toxic to articular cartilage, whichExpand
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