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Upstream and downstream of mTOR.
Both the upstream components of the signaling pathway(s) that activates mammalian TOR (mTOR) and the downstream targets that affect protein synthesis are described.
Regulation of Translation Initiation in Eukaryotes: Mechanisms and Biological Targets
Mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs: are the answers in sight?
This Review summarizes the current understanding of the mechanistic aspects of microRNA-induced repression of translation and discusses some of the controversies regarding different modes of micro RNA function.
eIF4 initiation factors: effectors of mRNA recruitment to ribosomes and regulators of translation.
The recent determination of the structure of eIF4E at atomic resolution has provided insight about how translation is initiated and regulated and suggests that eif4F is also implicated in malignancy and apoptosis.
Regulation of mRNA translation and stability by microRNAs.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that extensively regulate gene expression in animals, plants, and protozoa. miRNAs function posttranscriptionally by usually base-pairing to the mRNA…
Internal initiation of translation of eukaryotic mRNA directed by a sequence derived from poliovirus RNA
A novel mechanism of initiation on poliovirus RNA occurs by binding of ribosomes to an internal sequence within the 5′ noncoding region, which may explain the disparate translation of several other eukaryotic messenger RNAs.
Translational control in stress and apoptosis
Two representative models are examined, the regulation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α by phosphorylation and internal ribosome initiation through the internal Ribosome-entry site, which illustrate the importance of translational control in the cellular stress response and apoptosis.
Regulation of translation initiation by FRAP/mTOR.
Following transcription, processing, and nucleocytoplasmic export, mRNAs are competent for translation, but two transcripts present in identical quantities may be translated at very different rates.
A rapamycin-sensitive signaling pathway contributes to long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus
- Shao-Jun Tang, G. Reis, Hyejin Kang, A. Gingras, N. Sonenberg, E. Schuman
- BiologyProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 26 December 2001
The results demonstrate an essential role for rapamycin-sensitive signaling in the expression of two forms of synaptic plasticity that require new protein synthesis.
RAS/ERK Signaling Promotes Site-specific Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation via RSK and Stimulates Cap-dependent Translation*
Evidence is provided that activation of the p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSKs) by serum, growth factors, tumor promoting phorbol esters, and oncogenic Ras provides an mTOR-independent pathway linking the Ras/ERK signaling cascade to the translational machinery.