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Environmental fate and exposure; neonicotinoids and fipronil
TLDR
There is strong evidence that soils, waterways, and plants in agricultural environments and neighboring areas are contaminated with variable levels of neonicotinoids or fipronil mixtures and their metabolites, and this provides multiple routes for chronic exposure of nontarget animals.
Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites
TLDR
A review of the global literature shows a growing body of evidence that persistent, low concentrations of these insecticides pose serious risks of undesirable environmental impacts and a global evaluation of the potential collateral effects of their use is timely.
Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates
TLDR
Enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large-scale and wide ranging negative biological and ecological impacts on a wide range of non-target invertebrates in terrestrial, aquatic, marine and benthic habitats.
Honeybee Colony Disorder in Crop Areas: The Role of Pesticides and Viruses
TLDR
A significant correlation was found between the presence of fungicide residues and honeybee colony disorders and a significant positive link could also be established between the observation of disorder and the abundance of crop surface around the beehive.
Preliminary analysis of loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2015/16 from the COLOSS survey
TLDR
The overall analysis showed that small operations suffered higher losses than larger ones, with marked differences among countries.
Multi-country loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2016/2017 from the COLOSS survey
TLDR
The overall analysis showed that small operations suffered higher losses than larger ones (p < 0.001), and overall migratory beekeeping had no significant effect on the risk of winter loss, though there was an effect in several countries.
Conclusions of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment on the risks of neonicotinoids and fipronil to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning
TLDR
The present scale of use of fipronil and neonicotinoid has resulted in widespread contamination of agricultural soils, freshwater resources, wetlands, non-target vegetation and estuarine and coastal marine systems, which means that many organisms inhabiting these habitats are being repeatedly and chronically exposed to these compounds.
Loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2017/18 in 36 countries participating in the COLOSS survey, including effects of forage sources
TLDR
Evaluation of six different forage sources as potential risk factors for colony loss indicated that intensive foraging on any of five of these plant sources was associated with significantly higher winter losses, although this finding requires further study and explanation.
Bees and pesticide regulation: Lessons from the neonicotinoid experience
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