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Seasonal affective disorder. A description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy.
Preliminary studies in 11 patients suggest that extending the photoperiod with bright artificial light has an antidepressant effect and sleep recordings in nine depressed patients confirmed the presence of hypersomnia and showed increased sleep latency and reduced slow-wave (delta) sleep. Expand
Epidemiological findings of seasonal changes in mood and behavior. A telephone survey of Montgomery County, Maryland.
It is apparent from this study that seasonal affective disorder represents the extreme end of the spectrum of seasonality that affects a large percentage of the general population and might provide valuable insight into pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention of affective illness. Expand
Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes
Prevalence rates of winter SAD and subsyndromal SAD were found to be significantly higher at the more northern latitudes, while no correlation was found between latitude and summer SAD. Expand
Phototherapy in individuals with and without subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder.
It is found that bright artificial light did not alter mood and behavior in controls and in contrast, individuals with subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder responded favorably to treatment with bright environmental light. Expand
A circadian signal of change of season in patients with seasonal affective disorder.
Patients with seasonal affective disorder generate a biological signal of change of season that is absent in healthy volunteers and that is similar to the signal that mammals use to regulate seasonal changes in their behavior, consistent with the hypothesis that neural circuits that mediate the effects of seasonalChanges in day length on mammalian behavior mediate effects of season. Expand
Rates of seasonal affective disorder in children and adolescents.
These pilot data suggest that between 1.7% and 5.5% of 9-19-year-old children may have seasonal affective disorder, and the rate was higher in postpubertal girls. Expand
Rapid cycling affective disorder: contributing factors and treatment responses in 51 patients.
For 51 patients with rapid cycling affective disorder, clinical and family history data indicated that the illness was phenotypically and genetically related to more typical forms of affectiveExpand
Sleep reduction as a final common pathway in the genesis of mania.
The sleep reduction model is a parsimonious explanation for the precipitation of manic episodes by a wide variety of factors and provides a conceptual focus and an experimental paradigm for psychological investigations of the causes of mania. Expand
A missense variant (P10L) of the melanopsin (OPN4) gene in seasonal affective disorder.
The hypothesis that melanopsin variants may predispose some individuals to SAD is supported and the genetic basis for deficits in the non-visual light input pathway has the potential to define mechanisms underlying the pathological response to light in SAD, which may improve treatment. Expand