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Hormonal Responses and Adaptations to Resistance Exercise and Training
It appears that this acute response to resistance exercise is more critical to tissue growth and remodelling than chronic changes in resting hormonal concentrations, as many studies have not shown a significant change during resistance training despite increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy.
Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones
Low and intermediate RM training appears to induce similar muscular adaptations, at least after short-term training in previously untrained subjects, and both physical performance and the associated physiological adaptations are linked to the intensity and number of repetitions performed, and thus lend support to the strength–endurance continuum.
Fundamentals of resistance training: progression and exercise prescription.
A careful system of goal targeting, exercise testing, proper exercise technique, supervision, and optimal exercise prescription all contribute to the successful implementation of a resistance training program.
American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults.
- W. Kraemer, K. Adams, T. Triplett-McBride
- EducationMedicine and science in sports and exercise
- 1 February 2002
In order to stimulate further adaptation toward a specific training goal(s), progression in the type of resistance training protocol used is necessary and emphasis should be placed on multiple-joint exercises, especially those involving the total body.
Low-volume circuit versus high-volume periodized resistance training in women.
Significant improvements in muscular performance may be attained with either a low-volume single-set program or a high-volume, periodized multiple- set program during the first 12 wk of training in untrained women.
CHANGES IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND HORMONAL CONCENTRATIONS OVER A BIG TEN SOCCER SEASON IN STARTERS AND NONSTARTERS
- W. Kraemer, D. French, H. Knuttgen
- MedicineJournal of strength and conditioning research
- 1 February 2004
Data indicate that players entering the season with low circulating concentrations of T and elevated levels of C can experience reductions in performance during a season, with performance decrements exacerbated in starters over nonstarters.
Strength training: Development and evaluation of methodology
The effect of rest interval length on metabolic responses to the bench press exercise
- N. Ratamess, M. Falvo, Gerald T. Mangine, J. Hoffman, A. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang
- BiologyEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
- 20 January 2007
A continuum of performance reductions and metabolic responses were observed, and the largest reductions in performance occurred with very short RI (<1 min), and performance was maintained during the first 3–4 sets when 3- and 5-min RI were used.
Differential effects of strength training leading to failure versus not to failure on hormonal responses, strength, and muscle power gains.
This investigation demonstrated a potential beneficial stimulus of NRF for improving strength and power, especially during the subsequent peaking training period, whereas performing sets to failure resulted in greater gains in local muscular endurance.
Testosterone Physiology in Resistance Exercise and Training
- J. Vingren, W. Kraemer, N. Ratamess, Jeffrey M. Anderson, J. Volek, C. Maresh
- Biology, MedicineSports medicine
- 1 December 2010
Testosterone is an important modulator of muscle mass in both men and women and acute increases in testosterone can be induced by resistance exercise, and the variables within the acute programme variable domains must be selected such that the resistance exercise session contains high volume and metabolic demand to induce an acute testosterone response.