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Fundamental processes in the evolutionary ecology of Lyme borreliosis
A biological, process-based framework for vector-borne zoonoses is developed, using Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis in humans, as an example, and explores the fundamental biological processes that operate in this zoonosis. Expand
Role of Migratory Birds in Introduction and Range Expansion of Ixodes scapularis Ticks and of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Canada
The role of migratory birds in northward range expansion of Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and their tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, and a wide range of ospC and rrs-rrl intergenic spacer alleles of B. burgdorferi were identified in infected ticks, including those associated with disseminated Lyme disease and alleles that are rare in the northeastern United States. Expand
The emergence of Lyme disease in Canada
Lyme disease, caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted by tick vectors, is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the temperate zone. [1][1] More than 20 000 cases areExpand
A dynamic population model to investigate effects of climate on geographic range and seasonality of the tick Ixodes scapularis.
A dynamic population model of Ixodes scapularis, the vector of a number of tick-borne zoonoses in North America, was developed to simulate effects of temperature on tick survival and seasonality, suggesting that the range of southeast Canada where temperature conditions are currently suitable for the tick is much wider than the existing distribution of I. scapULARis, implying that there is potential for spread. Expand
Risk maps for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, in Canada now and with climate change
Validation of the risk maps provides some confidence that they provide a useful first step in predicting the occurrence of I. scapularis populations, and directing public health objectives in minimizing risk from Lyme disease. Expand
Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada.
The geographic range of I. scapularis-borne zoonoses may, therefore, expand significantly northwards as a consequence of climate change this century. Expand
Seasonal Dynamics of Anaplasma phagocytophila in a Rodent-Tick (Ixodes trianguliceps) System, United Kingdom
It is confirmed that woodland rodents can maintain A. phagocytophila in Great Britain in the absence of other reservoir hosts and suggests that I. trianguliceps is a competent vector. Expand
Predicting the speed of tick invasion: an empirical model of range expansion for the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada
It is shown that I. scapularis is rapidly expanding its range and is likely to colonize the most densely populated areas of southern Canada in the coming decade, and prompt action is necessary to prepare the Canadian public for a likely epidemic of Lyme disease. Expand
Relative Importance of Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes trianguliceps as Vectors for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Field Vole (Microtus agrestis) Populations
ABSTRACT The importance of Ixodes ricinus in the transmission of tick-borne pathogens is well recognized in the United Kingdom and across Europe. However, the role of coexisting Ixodes species, suchExpand
Population genetics, taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.
Since 2004, several schemes using multiple loci have been developed to better understand the taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution of Lyme borreliosis spirochetes and in this paper this progress is reviewed and summarized. Expand