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A two-dimensional neuropsychology of defense: fear/anxiety and defensive distance
A picture of the neural systems controlling defense that updates and simplifies Gray's "Neuropsychology of Anxiety" is presented, based on two behavioural dimensions: 'def defensive distance' as defined by the Blanchards and 'defensive direction'.
The neuropsychology of anxiety: reprise.
Anxiolytic action on the behavioural inhibition system implies multiple types of arousal contribute to anxiety.
The recent experiments show that there are multiple systems controlling theta activity and that anxiolytics act on several, but not all, of these systems, which implies thatthere are many different types of arousal.
Frontal-midline theta from the perspective of hippocampal “theta”
The hippocampal "theta rhythm" has been extensively studied in rats and its rhythmicity has recently been shown to be functionally significant, per se, and relevant aspects of the hippocampal literature are used to provide perspective on one of the most studied human EEG rhythms: frontal-midline theta.
Elicited hippocampal theta rhythm: a screen for anxiolytic and procognitive drugs through changes in hippocampal function?
Reductions in the frequency of reticular-elicited theta provide what is currently the best in-vivo means of detecting antianxiety drugs and it is suggested that increases in the power of reticulated theta could detect drugs useful in the treatment of disorders, such as dementia, that involve memory loss.
Motivation and Personality: A Neuropsychological Perspective
Personality is strongly influenced by motivation systems that organise responses to rewards and punishments and that drive approach and avoidance behavior. Neuropsychological research has identified:
Coupling of theta oscillations between anterior and posterior midline cortex and with the hippocampus in freely behaving rats.
Extensive coupling of theta oscillations throughout the rat midline cortices and hippocampus occurred during rearing, and exploratory behavior, which suggests that different frequencies of rhythmicity may act to bind groups of structures into different functional circuits on different occasions.
Restoring theta‐like rhythmicity in rats restores initial learning in the Morris water maze
It is demonstrated that brain rhythmicity, per se, can be important for mental processing even when the detailed information originally carried by neurons is lost and when the reinstated pattern of population firing is not normal.
Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task
A hierarchical model of the control of stopping is proposed that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition to suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms.