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Which Elections Can Be Lost?
The concept of electoral competition is relevant to a variety of research agendas in political science, yet the question of how to measure electoral competition has received little direct attention.
Do Economic Sanctions Destabilize Country Leaders
Do economic sanctions destabilize the governments they target? A form of foreign pressure, sanctions are typically meant to alter the policies of other countries. There is much pessimism on whether
Taking Sides in Other People’s Elections: The Polarizing Effect of Foreign Intervention
What do voters think when outside powers become de facto participants in a country’s election? We conceptualize two types of foreign intervention: a partisan stance, where the outsider roots for a
Foreign Aid, Human Rights and Democracy Promotion: Evidence from a Natural Experiment
Does foreign aid improve human rights and democracy? We help arbitrate the debate over this question by leveraging a novel source of exogeneity: the rotating presidency of the Council of the European
Coups and Democracy
This study uses new data on coups d’état and elections to document a striking development: whereas the vast majority of successful coups before 1991 installed durable rules, the majority of coups
Information and Self-Enforcing Democracy: The Role of International Election Observation
Abstract This article argues that when democracy is not yet institutionalized, leaders have little incentive to push for clean elections, in part because they are likely to face accusations of fraud
Electoral Authoritarianism and Credible Signaling in International Crises
How, if at all, do nondemocratic elections affect credible signaling in international crises? While the literature on credible signaling emphasizes the importance of electoral competition, it does
Process or Candidate: The International Community and the Demand for Electoral Integrity
Why do outside powers intervene in other countries’ elections? We distinguish between two types of electoral interventions: interventions in favor of the democratic process and interventions in favor
Do Public Fund Windfalls Increase Corruption? Evidence From a Natural Disaster
We show that unexpected financial windfalls increase corruption in local government. Our analysis uses a new data set on flood-related transfers, and the associated spending infringements, which the
Rules and Allies
When and how do states intervene in elections in other countries? Foreign interveners may aim to further the process of clean elections, or they may support the campaign of a candidate they like. It