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The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications
TLDR
In this work, we extract and analyze the core of the Bitcoin protocol, which we term the Bitcoin backbone, and prove two of its fundamental properties which we call common prefix and chain quality. Expand
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ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CARBON DIOXIDE INCREASES ORGANIC CARBON FIXATION BY EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA), UNDER NUTRIENT‐LIMITED HIGH‐LIGHT CONDITIONS 1
Phytoplankton play a key role in determining the partitioning of CO2 between the atmosphere and the ocean on seasonal, interannual, and millennial time scales. The magnitude of biological draw‐downExpand
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Different strategies of photoacclimation by two strains of Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) 1
Photoacclimation involves the modification of components of the light and dark reactions to optimize photosynthesis following changes in available light. All of the energy required for photosynthesisExpand
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The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty
TLDR
An abridged version of this paper was published in Crypto 2017. Expand
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PHOTOINHIBITION OF PSII IN EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) UNDER HIGH LIGHT STRESS: THE ROLES OF PHOTOACCLIMATION, PHOTOPROTECTION, AND PHOTOREPAIR 1
The response of the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W. H. Hay et H. Mohler to acute exposure to high photon flux densities (PFD) was examined in terms of PSII photoinhibition,Expand
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Responses of elemental and biochemical composition of Chaetoceros muelleri to growth under varying light and nitrate : phosphate supply ratios and their influence on critical N: P
The critical nitrogen-to-phosphorous ratio (N : P) defines the transition between N and P limitation of growth rate and is not a biological constant. To test the effect of environmental conditions onExpand
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NO MECHANISTIC DEPENDENCE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS ON CALCIFICATION IN THE COCCOLITHOPHORID EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) 1
There is still considerable uncertainty about the relationship between calcification and photosynthesis. It has been suggested that since calcification in coccolithophorids is an intracellularExpand
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Optimal Rate Private Information Retrieval from Homomorphic Encryption
TLDR
We present first rate-optimal protocols for 1-out-of-n computationallyprivate information retrieval (CPIR), oblivious transfer (OT), and strong conditional oblivious transfer. Expand
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Effects of nitrate : phosphate supply ratio and irradiance on the C : N : P stoichiometry of Chaetoceros muelleri
The ratio of nitrate consumption to phosphate consumption (the draw-down ratio) during phytoplankton growth is often assumed to equal the Redfield ratio of 16 mol N : 1 mol P. As such, both nutrientsExpand
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COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF LIGHT ON PIGMENTS OF TWO STRAINS OF EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA) 1
Calcifying and a noncalcifying strains of Emiliania huxleyi were cultured in nutrient replete turbidostats under a photon flux density (PFD) gradient from 50 to 600 μmol E·m−2·s−1. For both strains,Expand
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