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Tick-borne encephalitis virus - a review of an emerging zoonosis.
During the last 30 years, there has been a continued increase in human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Europe, a disease caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). TBEV is endemic inExpand
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European Surveillance for West Nile Virus in Mosquito Populations
A wide range of arthropod-borne viruses threaten both human and animal health either through their presence in Europe or through risk of introduction. Prominent among these is West Nile virus (WNV),Expand
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Development of a Real-Time, TaqMan Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Lyssavirus Genotypes 1, 5, and 6
ABSTRACT Several reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods have been reported for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses. These methods invariably involve multiple transfers of nucleicExpand
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The immune response to rabies virus infection and vaccination.
Infection with rabies virus causes encephalitis in humans that has a case fatality rate of almost 100%. This inability to resolve infection is surprising since both pre-exposure vaccination and, ifExpand
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Flavivirus-induced antibody cross-reactivity
Dengue viruses (DENV) cause countless human deaths each year, whilst West Nile virus (WNV) has re-emerged as an important human pathogen. There are currently no WNV or DENV vaccines licensed forExpand
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Comparative analysis of the full genome sequence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 and type 2 with other lyssaviruses and evidence for a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation motif
We report the first full-length genomic sequences for European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) and type-2 (EBLV-2). The EBLV-1 genomic sequence was derived from a virus isolated from a serotine bat inExpand
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Emergence of West Nile Virus Lineage 2 in Europe: A Review on the Introduction and Spread of a Mosquito-Borne Disease
West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and encephalitis in humans, equines, and occasionally wild birds. The virus was first isolated in sub-Saharan Africa where it isExpand
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Rabies human diploid cell vaccine elicits cross-neutralising and cross-protecting immune responses against European and Australian bat lyssaviruses.
The ability of antibodies elicited against the rabies human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) to neutralise European bat Lyssaviruses (EBLV types-1 and -2), Australian bat Lyssavirus and classical rabiesExpand
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Louping ill virus: an endemic tick-borne disease of Great Britain.
In Europe and Asia, Ixodid ticks transmit tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a flavivirus that causes severe encephalitis in humans but appears to show no virulence for livestock and wildlife. InExpand
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Japanese encephalitis virus infection, diagnosis and control in domestic animals.
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a significant cause of neurological disease in humans throughout Asia causing an estimated 70,000 human cases each year with approximately 10,000 fatalities. TheExpand
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