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Mechanical work in terrestrial locomotion: two basic mechanisms for minimizing energy expenditure.
During running, trotting, hopping, and galloping, the power per unit weight required to maintain the forward speed of the center of mass is almost the same in all the species studied and the sum of these two powers is almost a linear function of speed. Expand
Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion. I. Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals.
This series of four papers investigates the link between the energetics and the mechanics of terrestrial locomotion using data from 62 avian and mammalian species to formulate a new allometric equation relating mass-specific rates of oxygen consumed during locomotion at a constant speed to speed and body mass. Expand
Speed, stride frequency and energy cost per stride: how do they change with body size and gait?
The mass-specific energetic cost of locomotion is almost directly proportional to the stride frequency used to sustain a constant speed at all the equivalent speeds within a trot and a gallop, except for the minimum trotting speed (where it changes by a factor of two over the size range of animals studied). Expand
External, internal and total work in human locomotion.
- P. Willems, G. Cavagna, N. Heglund
- Physics, Medicine
- The Journal of experimental biology
- 1 February 1995
It appears that the muscle-tendon work of locomotion is most accurately measured when energy transfers are only included between segments of the same limb, but not among the limbs or between the limbs and the centre of mass of the whole body. Expand
Energetics and mechanics of terrestrial locomotion.
It is suggested that the metabolic cost of generating muscular force may be determined by the intrinsic velocity of shortening (i.e proportional to rates at which the cross-bridges between actin and myosin cycle) of the muscle motor units that are active during locomotion. Expand
Mechanics and energetics of human locomotion on sand.
- T. Lejeune, P. Willems, N. Heglund
- Environmental Science, Medicine
- The Journal of experimental biology
- 1 July 1998
Moving about in nature often involves walking or running on a soft yielding substratum such as sand, which has a profound effect on the mechanics and energetics of locomotion, and the energetic cost of walking and running under the same conditions is determined. Expand
Energetic Cost of Generating Muscular Force During Running: A Comparison of Large and Small Animals
It is concluded that the average accelerations of the centre of mass of the animal are not changed by carrying the loads, and that muscular force developed by the animal increases in direct proportion to the load. Expand
Effect of load and speed on the energetic cost of human walking
- G. Bastien, P. Willems, B. Schepens, N. Heglund
- Mathematics, Medicine
- European Journal of Applied Physiology
- 14 January 2005
The results show that the mass-specific gross metabolic power increases curvilinearly with speed and is directly proportional to the load at any speed, which suggests a load up to 1/4 Mb seems appropriate for long-distance walks. Expand
Scaling Stride Frequency and Gait to Animal Size: Mice to Horses
The speed at the transition from trot to gallop can be used as an equivalent speed for comparing animals of different size and plotting stride frequency at the trot-gallop transition point as a function of body mass in logarithmic coordinates yields a straight line. Expand
Design of the mammalian respiratory system. III Scaling maximum aerobic capacity to body mass: wild and domestic mammals.
Both the variability in Vo2max with body size and among animals of the same size provide powerful tools for investigating the relationship between structure and function at each step in the respiratory system, from the oxygen in environmental air to the oxygen sink in the mitochondria. Expand