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Importance of localized skin infection in tick-borne encephalitis virus transmission.
The results indicate that the local skin site of tick feeding is an important focus of viral replication early after TBE virus transmission by ticks, and supports the hypothesis that viremia is a product, rather than a prerequisite, of tick-borne virus transmission.
Tick salivary gland extracts promote virus growth in vitro.
The observation that physiological doses of virus respond to SGE treatment in vitro provides a new opportunity for identifying the factors in tick saliva that promote virus transmission in vivo.
Heterogeneity in the effect of different ixodid tick species on human natural killer cell activity
It is reported that salivary gland extracts from Dermacentor reticulatus adult ticks induce a decrease in the natural killer activity of effector cells obtained from healthy human blood donors, indicating that the tick anti‐NK factor(s) is only active after blood‐feeding has commenced.
Effect of Mahonia aquifolium active compounds on interleukin-8 production in the human monocytic cell line THP-1.
The effect of the crude extract and of two alkaloid fractions prepared from Mahonia aquifolium on interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytic cell line
Salivary gland extracts of partially fed Dermacentor reticulatus ticks decrease natural killer cell activity in vitro.
The results demonstrate the presence of a factor(s) in the salivary gland products of feeding D. reticulatus female ticks that influences human NK activity in vitro and suggest a possible mechanism by which tick SGE potentiates the transmission of some tick-borne viruses through suppression of NK activity.
Anti‐interleukin‐8 activity of tick salivary gland extracts
Salivary gland extracts from several ixodid tick species showed the ability of SGE to inhibit IL‐8 induced chemotaxis of human blood granulocytes, and peak activity fractions of D. reticulatus were shown to bind the chemokine, and to inhibit binding ofIL‐8 to its receptors on human granuolocytes enriched for neutrophils.
Interferon alpha-induced modulation of leukocyte cell surface antigens: immunocytofluorometric study with human leukaemia/lymphoma cell lines.
Recombinant interferon alpha enhanced the MHC class I antigen density on human leukaemia/lymphoma cell lines REH, U-937 and HL-60, as measured by immunocytofluorometry using specific monoclonal
Significance of anti-interferon-alpha2 and sICAM-1 activities in the sera of viral hepatitis B and C patients treated with human recombinant interferon-alpha2.
The appearance of the anti-IFN activity at the end of a long-term IFN therapy does not seem to influence the outcome of the therapy and sICAM-1 may be involved in the process of CAH-B reactivation and IFN-triggered cytotoxicity during theIFN therapy.
Interferon alpha2b is the predominant subvariant detected in human genomic DNAs.
In one placental genomic DNA and in a mixture of genomic DNAs from leukocytes of seven donors only nucleotides specific for subvariant IFN-alpha 2b could be detected, which suggests that the placental DNA contained only genes coding for IFn- alpha 2b and these alleles were at least prevailing in donor's genomes.
Interferon as therapeutic agent.
The conclusion is made that without a deeper insight in the functioning of this system, it is difficult to create a rational base for IFN therapy of viral, oncological and/or autoimmune diseases of man.