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The Unity and Diversity of Executive Functions and Their Contributions to Complex “Frontal Lobe” Tasks: A Latent Variable Analysis
- A. Miyake, N. Friedman, M. J. Emerson, A. Witzki, A. Howerter, T. Wager
- PsychologyCognitive Psychology
- 1 August 2000
The results suggest that it is important to recognize both the unity and diversity ofExecutive functions and that latent variable analysis is a useful approach to studying the organization and roles of executive functions.
The Nature and Organization of Individual Differences in Executive Functions
It is argued that individual differences in EFs, as measured with simple laboratory tasks, show both unity and diversity and are related to various clinically and societally important phenomena, and show some developmental stability.
The relations among inhibition and interference control functions: a latent-variable analysis.
The results suggest that the term inhibition has been overextended and that researchers need to be more specific when discussing and measuring inhibition-related functions.
Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin.
- N. Friedman, A. Miyake, S. Young, J. Defries, R. Corley, J. Hewitt
- Psychology, BiologyJournal of experimental psychology. General
- 1 May 2008
A multivariate twin study of 3 executive functions (inhibiting dominant responses, updating working memory representations, and shifting between task sets), measured as latent variables, examined why people vary in these executive control abilities and why they are correlated but separable from a behavioral genetic perspective.
Not All Executive Functions Are Related to Intelligence
- N. Friedman, A. Miyake, R. Corley, S. Young, J. Defries, J. Hewitt
- PsychologyPsychological science
- 1 February 2006
Examination of the relations of fluid and crystallized intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale IQ to three separable EFs in young adults indicates that intelligence measures differentially relate to these three EFs, suggesting that current intelligence measures do not equally assess a wide range of executive control abilities likely required for many “intelligent” behaviors.
How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related? A latent-variable analysis.
- A. Miyake, N. Friedman, David A. Rettinger, P. Shah, M. Hegarty
- PsychologyJournal of experimental psychology. General
- 1 December 2001
This study examined the relationships among visuospatial working memory (WM) executive functioning, and spatial abilities. One hundred sixty-seven participants performed visuospatial short-term…
Unity and diversity of executive functions: Individual differences as a window on cognitive structure
Behavioral disinhibition: liability for externalizing spectrum disorders and its genetic and environmental relation to response inhibition across adolescence.
Results indicated that, at age 12, behavioral disinhibition was dominated by ADHD and conduct problems and was highly heritable, and response inhibition may be an important mechanism underlying vulnerability to disinhibitory psychopathology.
The reading span test and its predictive power for reading comprehension ability
Developmental trajectories in toddlers' self-restraint predict individual differences in executive functions 14 years later: a behavioral genetic analysis.
- N. Friedman, A. Miyake, Joann L. Robinson, J. Hewitt
- PsychologyDevelopmental psychology
- 1 September 2011
A biological relation between individual differences in self-restraint and EFs, one that begins early in life and persists into late adolescence is suggested.