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Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks: A review and quantitative synthesis.
A meta-analysis of the distributed practice effect suggests that ISI and retention interval operate jointly to affect final-test retention; specifically, the ISI producing maximal retention increased as retention interval increased.
Changes in executive control across the life span: examination of task-switching performance.
Changes in processes responsible for preparation and interference control that underlie the ability to flexibly alternate between two different tasks were examined and indicated that the age-related variance in task-switching performance is independent, at least in part, from theAge- related variance in other cognitive processes such as perceptual speed and working memory.
Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers
Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function
- Sylvain Moreno, E. Bialystok, R. Barac, E. Schellenberg, N. Cepeda, T. Chau
- PsychologyPsychological science
- 3 October 2011
The effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood.
General and task-specific frontal lobe recruitment in older adults during executive processes: A fMRI investigation of task-switching
It is shown that larger areas of activation were seen in dorsolateral and medial frontal cortex in both younger and older adults during switching than repeating conditions, confirming the role of these frontal brain regions in executive processes.
When does feedback facilitate learning of words?
- H. Pashler, N. Cepeda, J. Wixted, D. Rohrer
- PsychologyJournal of experimental psychology. Learning…
Supplying the correct answer after an incorrect response not only improved performance during the initial learning session--it also increased final retention by 494% and made little difference either immediately or at a delay, regardless of whether the subject was confident in the response.
Spacing Effects in Learning
The interaction of gap and test delay implies that many educational practices are highly inefficient, and an increase in the interstudy gap at first increased, and then gradually reduced, final test performance.
Optimizing distributed practice: theoretical analysis and practical implications.
- N. Cepeda, Noriko Coburn, D. Rohrer, J. Wixted, M. Mozer, H. Pashler
- PsychologyExperimental psychology
- 13 May 2009
Both studies demonstrated nonmonotonic gap effects: Increases in gap caused test accuracy to initially sharply increase and then gradually decline, which provides new constraints on theories of spacing and confirms the importance of cumulative reviews to promote retention over meaningful time periods.
Using tests to enhance 8th grade students' retention of U.S. history facts
Laboratory studies show that retention of information can be powerfully enhanced through testing, but evidence for their utility to promote long-term retention of course information is limited. We…
Task Switching and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
The main goal of the present set of studies was to examine the efficiency of executive control processes and, more specifically, the control processes involved in task set inhibition and preparation…