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Simulating humans: computer graphics animation and control
1. Introduction and Historical Background 1.1 Why make human figure models? 1.2 Historical roots 1.3 What is currently possible? 1.4 Manipulation, animation, and simulation 1.5 What did we leave out?Expand
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Controlling individual agents in high-density crowd simulation
Simulating the motion of realistic, large, dense crowds of autonomous agents is still a challenge for the computer graphics community. Typical approaches either resemble particle simulations (whereExpand
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Real-Time Inverse Kinematics Techniques for Anthropomorphic Limbs
In this paper we develop a set of inverse kinematics algorithms suitable for an anthropomorphic arm or leg. We use a combination of analytical and numerical methods to solve generalized inverseExpand
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Animated conversation: rule-based generation of facial expression, gesture & spoken intonation for multiple conversational agents
We describe an implemented system which automatically generates and animates conversations between multiple human-like agents with appropriate and synchronized speech, intonation, facial expressions,Expand
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The EMOTE model for effort and shape
Human movements include limb gestures and postural attitude. Although many computer animation researchers have studied these classes of movements, procedurally generated movements still lackExpand
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Creating Interactive Virtual Humans: Some Assembly Required
Discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in creating virtual humans, or androids. As a first step, we overview the issues and available tools in three key areas of virtual humanExpand
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Eyes alive
For an animated human face model to appear natural it should produce eye movements consistent with human ocular behavior. During face-to-face conversational interactions, eyes exhibit conversationalExpand
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Generating Facial Expressions for Speech
This article reports results from o program thot produces high-quolity onimotion of fociol expressions ond head movements OS outomoticolly OS possible in conjunction with meaning-based speechExpand
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Inverse kinematics positioning using nonlinear programming for highly articulated figures
An articulated figure is often modeled as a set of rigid segments connected with joints. Its configuration can be altered by varying the joint angles. Although it is straight forward to computeExpand
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Modeling Crowd and Trained Leader Behavior during Building Evacuation
This article considers animating evacuation in complex buildings by crowds who might not know the structure's connectivity, or who find routes accidentally blocked. It takes into account simulatedExpand
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