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Simulating humans: computer graphics animation and control
1. Introduction and Historical Background 1.1 Why make human figure models? 1.2 Historical roots 1.3 What is currently possible? 1.4 Manipulation, animation, and simulation 1.5 What did we leave out?Expand
Controlling individual agents in high-density crowd simulation
The HiDAC system (for High-Density Autonomous Crowds) focuses on the problem of simulating the local motion and global wayfinding behaviors of crowds moving in a natural manner within dynamically changing virtual environments. Expand
Real-Time Inverse Kinematics Techniques for Anthropomorphic Limbs
We use a combination of analytical and numerical methods to solve generalized inverse kinematics problems including position, orientation, and aiming constraints. Expand
The EMOTE model for effort and shape
We present EMOTE (Expressive MOTion Engine), a 3D character animation system that applies Effort and Shape qualities to independently defined underlying movements and thereby generates more natural synthetic gestures. Expand
Animated conversation: rule-based generation of facial expression, gesture & spoken intonation for multiple conversational agents
We describe an implemented system which automatically generates and animates conversations between multiple human-like agents with appropriate and synchronized speech, intonation, facial expressions, and hand gestures. Expand
Creating Interactive Virtual Humans: Some Assembly Required
Discusses some of the key issues that must be addressed in creating virtual humans, or androids. Expand
Generating Facial Expressions for Speech
This article reports results from o program thot produces high-quolity onimotion of fociol expressions ond head movements OS outomotic in conjunction with meaning-based speech synthesis. Expand
Modeling Crowd and Trained Leader Behavior during Building Evacuation
This article considers animating evacuation in complex buildings by crowds who might not know the structure's connectivity, or who find routes accidentally blocked. Expand
Inverse kinematics positioning using nonlinear programming for highly articulated figures
An articulated figure is often modeled as a set of rigid segments connected with joints. Expand
Parameterizing Behavior Trees
We describe a way by which behavior trees can be authored for acting upon functions with arguments, as opposed to being limited to nonparametric tasks. Expand