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The Amount of Recycled Crust in Sources of Mantle-Derived Melts
Olivine phenocrysts' compositions record differences in the contributions of pyroxenite-derived melts in mid-ocean ridge basalts, which imply involvement of 2 to 20% (up to 28%) of recycled crust in mantle melting.
Crustal growth in West Africa at 2.1 Ga
Birimian (∼2.1 Ga) terranes in the West African craton are a mixture of highly metamorphosed volcanic, sedimentary and plutonic rocks and low grade metavolcanics and metasediments. The volcanic units…
Role of recycled oceanic basalt and sediment in generating the Hf–Nd mantle array
The isotopic composition of oceanic basalts suggests that they are composed of true recycled oceanic crust and sediments, which are mixed with the depleted mantle.
Temperatures in ambient mantle and plumes: Constraints from basalts, picrites, and komatiites
Several methods have been developed to assess the thermal state of the mantle below oceanic ridges, islands, and plateaus, on the basis of the petrology and geochemistry of erupted lavas. One leads…
Flood and shield basalts from Ethiopia: Magmas from the African superswell
The Ethiopian plateau is made up of several distinct volcanic centres of different ages and magmatic affinities. In the NE, a thick sequence of 30 Ma flood basalts is overlain by the 30 Ma Simien…
The heterogeneous Iceland plume: Nd‐Sr‐O isotopes and trace element constraints
- C. Hemond, N. Arndt, U. Lichtenstein, A. Hofmann, N. Óskarsson, S. Steinthorsson
- 10 September 1993
We present a comprehensive set of Sr, Nd, and O isotope data and trace element concentrations from tholeiitic and alkaline lavas of the neovolcanic zones of Iceland (picrites, olivine and quartz…
Emergence of a Habitable Planet
Abstract We address the first several hundred million years of Earth’s history. The Moon-forming impact left Earth enveloped in a hot silicate atmosphere that cooled and condensed over ∼1,000 yrs. As…
Linking mantle plumes, large igneous provinces and environmental catastrophes
Large igneous provinces (LIPs) are known for their rapid production of enormous volumes of magma (up to several million cubic kilometres in less than a million years), for marked thinning of the…
Oceanic nickel depletion and a methanogen famine before the Great Oxidation Event
A decline in the molar nickel to iron ratio recorded in banded iron formations is reported, which is attributed to a reduced flux of nickel to the oceans, a consequence of cooling upper-mantle temperatures and decreased eruption of nickel-rich ultramafic rocks at the time.
Processes on the Young Earth and the Habitats of Early Life
Conditions at the surface of the young (Hadean and early Archean) Earth were suitable for the emergence and evolution of life. After an initial hot period, surface temperatures in the late Hadean may…