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Subterranean termites excavate branching tunnels for searching and transporting food in soil. Experimentally, the length distribution of the branch tunnels, P(L), was characterized by the exponentially decaying function, P(L) approximately exp(-alphaL) with a branch length exponent of alpha=0.15. To evaluate the significance of this alpha value, we used a(More)
The foraging territory of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was simulated by using a lattice model in order to study how landscape structure affects the foraging territory. Three kinds of landscape were generated on lattice space: ideal, random and fractal landscape. Each lattice cell had a value ranging from 0.0 to 1.0,(More)
The caste developmental pathway for the production of soldiers and nymphs in termite colonies is variable among species and limited numbers of studies have properly categorized such pathways. In this study, the developmental pathway for the production of soldiers and nymphs in Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki has been re-analyzed using the data from previous(More)
In a termite colony, the incipient phase is the most critical part of the life of the colony. The quality of the investment in the first offspring by the primary reproductives may determine the rate of success of the colony to survive the first year and its growth rate in the following years. However, termite colonies possess a physiological constraint,(More)
The aim of this study was to explore how a heterogeneous landscape affects food encounter rate in the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. To do this, a lattice model was formulated to simulate the tunneling structure of the termite. The model made use of minimized local rules derived from empirical data. In addition, a landscape(More)
Juvenile colonies of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated to determine the social interactions among all individuals near the central nest of a colony. The behavioral repertoire of whole colonies of subterranean termites has yet to be identified because of their cryptic nests. Colonies were placed in planar arenas, and their behavioral(More)
Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in the world and termites are the most important metazoan cellulose processors. Termites are divided into lower and higher termites, with the latter being the most derived and most specious. Although termites are known for their ability to digest wood, members of the family Termitidae (higher termites) are(More)
In the subterranean termite Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), soldiers developing in incipient colonies display strong fluctuating asymmetry when compared with soldiers developing in mature colonies. This strong asymmetry may arise from two different types of stress factors on individuals. First, the accelerated development of nanitic (small) soldiers may(More)
This study investigated age polyethism and the frequencies of behaviors in relation to the distance from the egg cluster in nests of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, a lower termite. Juvenile colonies of C. formosanus were introduced in planar arenas and termite activity was recorded with camcorders. The results showed that there were differences in(More)