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The caste developmental pathway for the production of soldiers and nymphs in termite colonies is variable among species and limited numbers of studies have properly categorized such pathways. In this study, the developmental pathway for the production of soldiers and nymphs in Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki has been re-analyzed using the data from previous(More)
Subterranean termites excavate branching tunnels for searching and transporting food in soil. Experimentally, the length distribution of the branch tunnels, P(L), was characterized by the exponentially decaying function, P(L) approximately exp(-alphaL) with a branch length exponent of alpha=0.15. To evaluate the significance of this alpha value, we used a(More)
In a termite colony, the incipient phase is the most critical part of the life of the colony. The quality of the investment in the first offspring by the primary reproductives may determine the rate of success of the colony to survive the first year and its growth rate in the following years. However, termite colonies possess a physiological constraint,(More)
The foraging territory of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was simulated by using a lattice model in order to study how landscape structure affects the foraging territory. Three kinds of landscape were generated on lattice space: ideal, random and fractal landscape. Each lattice cell had a value ranging from 0.0 to 1.0,(More)
Recent studies have shown that the heme oxygenase (HO) product, carbon monoxide (CO), induces vasodilation and that inhibition of HO produces a sustained hypertension in rats. Given the importance of renal medullary blood flow (MBF) in the long-term control of arterial blood pressure, we hypothesized that the HO/CO system may play an important role in(More)
While studying the effects of membrane phosphorylation on active Ca2+ transport in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) we used NaF (a conventional phosphatase inhibitor) in the Ca2+ transport assay medium to suppress protein dephosphorylation by endogenous phosphatases. Unexpectedly, depending on the experimental conditions employed, NaF was found to cause(More)
Recent studies have demonstrated that the negative chronotropic and inotropic responses of the heart to cholinergic muscarinic receptor stimulation are strikingly enhanced with aging in the rat model. The present study investigated the electrophysiological basis of this phenomenon by determining the effects of a muscarinic receptor agonist, carbachol, on(More)
The aim of this study was to explore how a heterogeneous landscape affects food encounter rate in the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki. To do this, a lattice model was formulated to simulate the tunneling structure of the termite. The model made use of minimized local rules derived from empirical data. In addition, a landscape(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim was to determine whether aging alters coronary vascular responses to cholinergic and alpha adrenergic stimulation. METHODS Changes in coronary perfusion pressure and myocardial contractility in response to infusion of cholinergic and alpha adrenergic agonists and antagonists were determined in isolated Langendorff perfused hearts from(More)
A population estimate model was developed to account for the unequal recapture probability of marked animals when their diffusion into the released population has yet to reach the equilibrium. We assumed a spatial bias for marked individuals within the finite area of the animals’ territory, and used a correction parameter to account for the bias.(More)