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This study evaluated the levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in patients with dengue. Sera from 17 patients with dengue fever (DF), 15 with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and 12 healthy individuals were obtained. Increased levels of sIL-2R and sICAM-1 were found in patients with DF and(More)
Dengue (DEN) virus is responsible for one of the most significant viral diseases in tropical countries. Monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Mphi) are the major target cells for DEN virus. To determine the effects of the interaction between DEN virus and Mo/Mphi, human monocyte cultures were infected with DEN virus type 2. Apoptosis and production of tumor necrosis(More)
The therapeutic effects of melatonin against viral infections, with emphasis on the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE), are reviewed. Melatonin has been shown to prevent paralysis and death in mice infected with the encephalomyocarditis virus and to decrease viremia. Melatonin also postpones the onset of the disease produced by Semliki Forest virus(More)
This study evaluated the levels of TNFalpha, IL-6, IL-1beta, nitric oxide (NO), CRP, C3 and apoptosis in 36 patients with dengue fever (DF), 34 patients with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and in virus-infected monocyte cultures. IL-6, TNFalpha, NO (nitrites) and CRP levels were increased and C3 diminished in patients with DF and DHF. IL-6, TNFalpha, CPR(More)
Several studies have been performed to determine biomarkers that define the risk factors to developing severe forms of dengue. In this study, the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1, IL-17, soluble interleukin-1 receptor like 1 protein (sST2), soluble TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL), IL-12 and soluble receptors for TNF (sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII) were(More)
Immunosuppressive status against infections in monocytes from neonates and elderly subjects has been reported. The interaction between dengue virus and monocytes/macrophages plays an important role during dengue disease. The aim of this study was to determine the cytokine response of monocytes from individuals with different ages after infection with dengue(More)
The immune system (IS) cells are capable of recognizing a wide variety of microorganisms, through receptors that are expressed and distributed throughout the cell architecture. The interaction between the pathogen-associated molecular patterns or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or DAMPs) and pattern recognition receptors (PRR), present in host(More)
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are pathologies that affect the respiratory tract from the proximal pharynx to the lungs, with an evolution of less than 15 days. They constitute the most frequent cause of morbimortality in the world. With the purpose of identifying the viral agents associated to this type of infections in patients of Zulia State,(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the direct and indirect costs of medical care provided to cases of dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS) between 1997 and 2003 in Zulia State, Venezuela. METHODS The total number of patients with dengue and DHF/DSS was obtained from records belonging to the Regional Epidemiology Office of the state of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been involved in several infectious diseases. Virus dengue is capable of inducing increased levels of NO when cocultured with human Kupffer and spleen cells. However, no reports describe the levels of NO in patients with dengue infection. Increased levels of NO were found in patients with the classic form of the disease; however, in(More)