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Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and neurotoxicity. These pathologies have been associated with oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines, which may operate by activating their downstream target p38 MAP kinase. In the present study, the protective effects of a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD),(More)
The modulation of angiogenic signaling by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an emerging area of interest in cellular and vascular biology research. We provide evidence here that peroxynitrite, the powerful oxidizing and nitrating free radical, is critically involved in transduction of the VEGF signal. We tested the hypothesis that VEGF induces peroxynitrite(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intracellular signaling in endothelial cells is initiated by the activation of distinct tyrosine kinase receptors, VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1/KDR). Because the tyrosine kinase-dependent transcription factors known as STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are important modulators of(More)
VEGF increases endothelial cell permeability and growth by a process requiring NOS activity. Because eNOS activity is regulated by its interaction with the caveolar structural protein caveolin-1, we analyzed VEGF effects on structural interactions between eNOS, caveolin-1 and the VEGF receptor Flk-1/KDR. Confocal immunolocalization analysis of the(More)
PURPOSE To determine the cellular route by which vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) increases the permeability of cultured retinal endothelial cells and to test whether nitric oxide (NO) production by NO synthase (NOS) is involved in signaling VEGF's permeability enhancing effects. METHODS Cultured bovine retinal microvascular endothelial(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor (VEGF) has been implicated in blood/tissue barrier dysfunctions associated with pathological angiogenesis, but the mechanisms of VEGF-induced permeability increase are poorly understood. Here, the role of VEGF-induced extracellular proteolytic activities on the endothelial cell permeability(More)
PURPOSE CCL2 plays an important role in vascular inflammation by inducing leukocyte recruitment and activation. The authors had previously found that the blockade of NAD(P)H oxidase in turn blocks leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels during diabetes and uveitis. In this study, the role of NAD(P)H oxidase in CCL2 production was assessed. METHODS Studies(More)
PURPOSE The production of proinflammatory cytokines has been shown to play a critical role in a variety of retinal vascular diseases. Angiotensin II and VEGF have been implicated in the initiation of vascular inflammation and retinal vascular disease. However, detailed mechanisms of this process and interactions between inflammatory agonists and angiotensin(More)
The morphologically and functionally polarized retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) has numerous functions including maintaining adjacent retinal photoreceptor cells and forming the outer blood-retinal barrier [1]. Differentiated RPE cells in the normal adult eye, however, retain the ability to migrate and proliferate in response to a wide range of pathological(More)
In glaucoma, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death is induced by many risk factors, including ocular hypertension. It has been proposed that glutamate-mediated oxidative stress may also contribute to this RGC death. Cannabinoids are known to possess therapeutic properties including ocular hypotension and antioxidation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that(More)