Two models of eye-movements are in competition with each other: the cardanic suspension (Listing law 1845) and the socket-joint (structural-hemispheric theory 1986). The dynamic orbital MRI demonstrates arguments for the latter which is based upon anatomy and physiology.
Structural surgery is based on a model in which eye movements follow the ball-joint principle, i.e., there is absolute freedom of movement in all possible directions. Nystagmus blockage or convergence excess is regarded as a surplus of the medial rectus muscle. The relation between the weight of the globe and the muscle mass is taken into account. The… (More)
The theory of compensatory rolling of the eyes when the head is inclined is based on the belief that only the bulb rolls. The authors, on the other hand, advance the hypothesis that level components are also inevitably involved. Therefore, they consider it more correct to speak of compensatory eye movements, especially as such phenomena are also… (More)