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OBJECTIVE Pressure ulcers often occur at sites subjected to pressure and wetness. Although skin wetness is a risk factor for pressure ulcers,the mechanisms and effects of wetness versus urine constituents on skin breakdown is unclear. The hypothesis that wetness reduces skin hardness and, thereby, increases vulnerability of underlying blood vessels to(More)
The phase shift hypothesis (PSH) states that most patients with SAD become depressed in the winter because of a delay in circadian rhythms with respect to the sleep/wake cycle: According to the PSH, these patients should preferentially respond to the antidepressant effects of bright light exposure when it is scheduled in the morning so as to provide a(More)
Nest site characteristics associated with flood and predator avoidance were compared for four nonpasserine species of marsh-nesting birds: clapper rails, willets, laughing gulls, and common terns. Species with short nests, willets and terns, minimized flood damage by nesting on higher ground than did gulls and rails that build tall nests. Species with(More)
We studied how lowering a syringe pump and changing the outflow pressure could affect syringe pump output. We experimentally reduced the height of three different syringe pump systems by 80 cm (adult setting) or 130 cm (neonatal setting), as can happen clinically, using five flow rates. We measured the time of backward flow, no flow and the total time(More)
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