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Cell lineages during development of ascidian embryos were analyzed by injecting horseradish peroxidase as a tracer enzyme into identified cells of the 16-cell and 32-cell stage embryos of Halocynthia roretzi. Most of the blastomeres of these embryos developed more kinds of tissues than have hitherto been reported, and therefore, the developmental fates of(More)
Ascidians and vertebrates belong to the Phylum Chordata and both have dorsal tubular central nervous systems. The structure of the ascidian neural tube is extremely simple, containing less than 400 cells, among which less than 100 cells are neurons. Recent studies suggest that, despite its simple organization, the mechanisms patterning the ascidian neural(More)
As a base for human transcriptome and functional genomics, we created the "full-length long Japan" (FLJ) collection of sequenced human cDNAs. We determined the entire sequence of 21,243 selected clones and found that 14,490 cDNAs (10,897 clusters) were unique to the FLJ collection. About half of them (5,416) seemed to be protein-coding. Of those, 1,999(More)
In early Ciona embryos, nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin is most probably the first step of endodermal cell specification. If beta-catenin is mis- and/or overexpressed, presumptive notochord cells and epidermal cells change their fates into endodermal cells, whereas if beta-catenin nuclear localization is downregulated by the overexpression of cadherin,(More)
The ascidian tadpole represents the most simplified chordate body plan. It contains a notochord composed of just 40 cells, but as in vertebrates Brachyury is essential for notochord differentiation. Here, we show that the misexpression of the Brachyury gene (Ci-Bra) of Ciona intestinalis is sufficient to transform endoderm into notochord. Subtractive(More)
The Pax6 gene plays a developmental role in various metazoans as the master regulatory gene for eye patterning. Pax6 is also spatially regulated in particular regions of the neural tube. Because the amphioxus has no neuromeres, an understanding of Pax6 expression in the agnathans is crucial for an insight into the origin of neuromerism in the vertebrates.(More)
  • H Wada, N Satoh
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
  • 1994
Almost the entire sequences of 18S rDNA were determined for two chaetognaths, five echinoderms, a hemichordate, and two urochordates (a larvacean and a salp). Phylogenetic comparisons of the sequences, together with those of other deuterostomes (an ascidian, a cephalochordate, and vertebrates) and protostomes (an arthropod and a mollusc), suggest the(More)
In the present study, we addressed the role of (beta)-catenin in the specification of embryonic cells of the ascidians Ciona intestinalis and C. savignyi and obtained the following results: (1) During cleavages, (beta)-catenin accumulated in the nuclei of vegetal blastomeres, suggesting that it plays a role in the specification of endoderm. (2) Mis- and/or(More)
The brain of the ascidian larva comprises two pigment cells, termed the ocellus melanocyte and the otolith melanocyte. Cell lineage analysis has shown that the two bilateral pigment lineage cells (a-line blastomeres) in the animal hemisphere give rise to these melanocytes in a complementary manner. The results of the present investigation suggest that the(More)
Obesity promotes the progression of atherosclerosis by inducing multiple cardiovascular and metabolic derangements such as diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, all of which have high atherogenic potential. Adipose tissue has been considered an important endocrine organ that secretes many biologically active substances, collectively known as(More)