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We have tracked the fate of immature human B cells at a critical stage in their development when the mature B cell repertoire is shaped. We show that a major subset of bone marrow emigrant immature human B cells, the transitional 2 (T2) B cells, homes to gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and that most T2 B cells isolated from human GALT are activated.(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The identification and characterisation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) has recently opened up exciting opportunities for Treg cell therapy in transplantation. In this review, we outline the basic biology of Tregs and discuss recent advances and challenges for the identification, isolation and expansion of these cells for cell therapy. (More)
The main focus of this review was the role of a specific subset of T cells with immunomodulatory or immunosuppressive activities, termed regulatory T cells (Tregs), in the pathogenesis and treatment of bronchial asthma. Evidence that these cells are important in maintaining immune homeostasis in health and exhibit impaired activity in active disease will be(More)
Regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy has the potential to induce transplantation tolerance so that immunosuppression and associated morbidity can be minimized. Alloantigen-reactive Tregs (arTregs) are more effective at preventing graft rejection than polyclonally expanded Tregs (PolyTregs) in murine models. We have developed a manufacturing process to expand(More)
The gut harbors a complex community of over 100 trillion microbial cells known to exist in symbiotic harmony with the host influencing human physiology, metabolism, nutrition and immune function. It is now widely accepted that perturbations of this close partnership results in the pathogenesis of several major diseases with increasing evidence highlighting(More)
Transplantation is a successful treatment for end-stage organ failure. Despite improvements in short-term outcome, long-term survival remains suboptimal because of the morbidity and mortality associated with long-term use of immunosuppression. There is, therefore, a pressing need to devise protocols that induce tolerance in order to minimize or completely(More)
BACKGROUND Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the UK. Patients often consume the drug with suicidal intent or with a background of substance dependence. AIMS AND METHODS We compared the severity of pretransplant illness, psychiatric co-morbidity, medical and psychosocial outcomes of all patients(More)
Solid organ transplantation is the standard treatment to improve both the quality of life and survival in patients with various end-stage organ diseases. The primary barrier against successful transplantation is recipient alloimmunity and the need to be maintained on immunosuppressive therapies with associated side effects. Despite such treatments in renal(More)
Use of human hepatocytes for therapeutic and drug discovery applications is hampered by limited tissue source and the inability of hepatocytes to proliferate and maintain function long-term in vitro. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are immortal and pluripotent and may provide a cell source for functional human hepatocytes (1) Here we have outlined some of(More)
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in immunoregulation and have been shown in animal models to promote transplantation tolerance and curb autoimmunity following their adoptive transfer. The safety and potential therapeutic efficacy of these cells has already been reported in Phase I trials of bone-marrow transplantation and type I diabetes,(More)