Learn More
Although combination antiretroviral therapy has resulted in a considerable improvement in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the emergence of resistant virus is a significant obstacle to the effective management of HIV infection and AIDS. We have developed a novel phenotypic drug susceptibility assay that may be(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of resistance by adherence level in patients treated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) or protease inhibitors (PI). Also to examine the mechanism of differential class-specific adherence-resistance relationships, focusing on the patient-derived capacity of wild-type and drug-resistant(More)
BACKGROUND Rapid progression to AIDS after acute HIV-1 infection, though uncommon, has been noted, as has the transmission of multidrug resistant viruses. Here, we describe a patient in whom these two factors arose concomitantly and assess the effects. METHODS We did a case study of a patient with HIV-1 seroconversion. We genotyped the virus and host(More)
Synthesis of the pol gene products of most retroviruses requires ribosomes to shift frame once or twice in the -1 direction while translating gag-pol mRNA. The viral signals for frameshifting include a heptanucleotide sequence on which the shift occurs and higher-order RNA structure just downstream of the shift site. We have made site-directed mutations in(More)
CONTEXT There is concern that the widespread use of antiretroviral drugs to treat human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection may result in the increased transmission of drug-resistant virus. OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of drug resistance-conferring mutations and phenotypic resistance to antiretroviral agents in a cohort of individuals(More)
Amprenavir (Agenerase, 141-W94, VX-478) is a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PRI) recently approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in the United States. A major cause of treatment failure is the development of resistance to PRIs. One potential use for amprenavir is as salvage therapy for patients for whom treatment that(More)
UNLABELLED Hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development has resulted in treatment regimens composed of interferon-free, all-oral combinations of direct-acting antivirals. While the new regimens are potent and highly efficacious, the full clinical impact of HCV drug resistance, its implications for retreatment, and the potential role of baseline resistance(More)
Durable suppression of HIV-1 replication requires the establishment of antiretroviral drug concentrations that exceed the susceptibility of the virus strain(s) infecting the patient. Minimum plasma drug concentrations (C(trough)) are correlated with response, but determination of target C(trough) values is hindered by a paucity of in vivo(More)
HIV-1 drug resistance mutations are often inversely correlated with viral fitness, which remains poorly described at the molecular level. Some resistance mutations can also suppress resistance caused by other resistance mutations. We report the molecular mechanisms by which a virus resistant to lamivudine with the M184V reverse transcriptase mutation shows(More)
The tat-responsive region (TAR) of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) exhibits a trans-inhibitory effect on translation in vitro by activating the interferon-induced 68-kilodalton protein kinase (p68 kinase). Productive infection by HIV-1 was shown to result in a significant decrease in the amount of cellular p68 kinase. The steady-state amount of(More)