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OBJECTIVE Recent studies suggest that ischemic preconditioning (IPC) inhibits myocardial apoptosis after ischemia and reperfusion. This study tested the hypothesis that IPC reduces ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial apoptosis by inhibiting neutrophil (PMN) accumulation and altering expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins. METHODS Eighteen rats were(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether apoptosis is triggered during ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R) and whether I/R-induced apoptosis is correlated with changes in expression of Bcl-2 and Bax. METHODS Anesthetized open-chest dogs were divided into two groups. Group I: 7 h of permanent I without R (PI, n = 7); Group II: 60(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial injury during early reperfusion (R) has been well documented. However, the extent and time course of myocardial injury during late R are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of regional contractile and endothelial dysfunction and myocardial blood flow (MBF) defect as well as extension of infarction in(More)
BACKGROUND Postconditioning (postcon) reduces infarct size, myocardial superoxide ((•)O(2)) generation, and neutrophil (PMN) accumulation. It is unknown whether inhibition of PMNs influence cardioprotection by postcon. The present study tested the following hypotheses: (1) myocardial salvage by postcon is modified by inhibition of PMNs and (2) postcon(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple organ failure after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) may occur secondary to endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. We sought to determine if DHCA causes endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis in brain, kidney, lungs, and other tissues. METHODS Anesthetized pigs on cardiopulmonary bypass were: (1) cooled to 18 degrees C, and(More)
This study tests the hypothesis that infarct reduction with adenosine (Ado) is associated with inhibition of apoptotic cell death by modulating expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and pro-apoptotic Bax proteins and reducing neutrophil accumulation. In three groups of dogs, the left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 60 min and reperfused(More)
INTRODUCTION To test the hypothesis that administration of adenosine during reperfusion attenuates endothelial dysfunction and extension of infarct size by inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-mediated events and apoptosis. METHODS Anesthetized dogs were subjected to 1 h coronary artery occlusion and 6 h of reperfusion with infusion of saline(More)
This study tested the hypothesis that A(3) adenosine receptors inhibit neutrophil (PMN) function and PMN-mediated reperfusion injury. 2-Chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (Cl-IB-MECA), an A(3) agonist, did not attenuate superoxide production or myeloperoxidase release from stimulated PMNs. However, Cl-IB-MECA reduced(More)
BACKGROUND This study tested the hypothesis that ischemic preconditioning (IP) inhibits myocardial apoptosis after a short period of ischemia and reperfusion. METHODS In 9 anesthetized dogs, the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery was occluded for 30 min and reperfused for 3 h (control), while in 9 others, LAD occlusion was preceded by 5 min of(More)
BACKGROUND NO has been advocated as an adjunct to cardioplegia solutions. However, NO undergoes a rapid biradical reaction with superoxide anions to produce peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). ONOO(-) in crystalloid cardioplegia solution induces injury to coronary endothelium and to systolic function after cardioplegia and reperfusion. However, ONOO(-) may be degraded(More)
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