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We constructed a genetic linkage map for a tetraploid derivative species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), using 191 microsatellite, 3 RAPD, 7 ESMP, and 7 allozyme markers in three backcross families. The linkage map consists of 29 linkage groups with potential arm displacements in the female map due to male-specific pseudolinkage arrangements.(More)
The retinal bipolar cell receiving glutamate transmission from photoreceptors mediates a key process in segregating visual signals into ON center and OFF center pathways. This transmission involves a G protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR). Immunocytochemical and immunoelectron microscopic studies indicate that restricted localization of a(More)
A cDNA clone for a new rat metabotropic glutamate receptor termed mGluR7 was isolated through polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA amplification by using primer sequences conserved among the metabotropic receptor (mGluR) family and by the subsequent screening of a rat forebrain cDNA library. The cloned mGluR7 subtype consists of 915 amino acid residues(More)
PURPOSE Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is upregulated by hypoxia and is a major stimulatory factor for retinal neovascularization in ischemic retinopathies such as diabetic retinopathy. This study sought to determine if VEGF is a stimulatory factor in a murine model of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS Mice with laser-induced ruptures(More)
alpha-Synuclein (alpha-SYN) is deposited in intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (Lewy bodies, LBs) characteristic for Parkinson's disease (PD) and LB dementias. alpha-SYN forms LB-like fibrils in vitro, in contrast to its homologue beta-SYN. Here we have investigated the solubility of SYNs in human LB diseases and in transgenic mice expressing human(More)
Recent animal studies have demonstrated that undercarboxylated osteocalcin upregulates insulin secretion via osteoblast-insulin signaling. However, it remains unclear whether such a pathway exists in humans. This study showed that serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin levels were inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and(More)
Retinal vasculogenesis and ischemic retinopathies provide good model systems for study of vascular development and neovascularization (NV), respectively. Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of retinal vasculogenesis and in the development of retinal NV in ischemic retinopathies. However, insulin-like growth(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, rapid advances have been made in metabolomics-based, easy-to-use early cancer detection methods using blood samples. Among metabolites, profiling of plasma free amino acids (PFAAs) is a promising approach because PFAAs link all organ systems and have important roles in metabolism. Furthermore, PFAA profiles are known to be influenced by(More)
Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is the major cause of severe visual loss in patients with age-related macular degeneration. Laser treatment is helpful for a minority of patients with CNV, and development of new treatments is hampered by a poor understanding of the molecular signals involved. Several lines of evidence have suggested that basic fibroblast(More)
Fish possess immunoglobulins, major histocompatibility complex (MHC), T-cell receptors, and lymphocyte populations analogous to B and T cells and can evoke specific immune responses against a variety of antigens. However, T-cell subsets have yet to be demonstrated and the information on cell-mediated immunity is limited. Here we briefly review our recent(More)