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The Pak4 protein kinase, normally expressed at low level in the mammary gland, is commonly overexpressed in breast cancer. Overexpression of Pak4 transforms mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro and renders these cells tumorigenic in athymic mice in vivo. Here we show that Pak4 is also required for oncogenic transformation of the human breast cancer cell(More)
F1Fo ATP synthase is present in all organisms and is predominantly located on the inner membrane of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells. The present study demonstrated that ATP synthase and electron transport chain complexes were ectopically expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells and could serve as a potent anticancer target. We investigated the(More)
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