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An algorithm is described for solving sparse symmetric sets of linear equations whose matrix is positive defimte. An incomplete factonzation is formed and used to precondition the matrix for conjugate gradients and hence greatly reduce the number of iterations needed. The problem of choosing a reasonably accurate factorization without having too many(More)
Leaf water contains naturally occurring stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in abundances that vary spatially and temporally. When sufficiently understood, these can be harnessed for a wide range of applications. Here, we review the current state of knowledge of stable isotope enrichment of leaf water, and its relevance for isotopic signals incorporated(More)
Lead (Pb) concentrations and isotopic compositions from soils, dusts and aerosols from public land and residential lots adjacent to the copper and Pb mine and smelter at Mount Isa, Australia, were examined to understand the sources and risks of environmental Pb exposure. Urban soil samples contain elevated Pb concentrations (mean 1560 mg/kg), of which(More)
The isotope signatures registered in speleothems during tropical cyclones (TC) provides information about the frequency and intensity of past TCs but the precise relationship between isotopic composition and the meteorology of TCs remain uncertain. Here we present continuous δ18O and δ2H data in rainfall and water vapour, as well as in discrete rainfall(More)
A novel sampling device suitable for continuous, unattended field monitoring of rapid isotopic changes in environmental waters is described. The device utilises diffusion through porous PTFE tubing to deliver water vapour continuously from a liquid water source for analysis of δ¹⁸O and δD values by Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometry (CRDS). Separation of the(More)
RATIONALE Traditionally, stable isotope analysis of plant and soil water has been a technically challenging, labour-intensive and time-consuming process. Here we describe a rapid single-step technique which combines Microwave Extraction with Isotope Ratio Infrared Spectroscopy (ME-IRIS). METHODS Plant, soil and insect water is extracted into a dry air(More)
Major and trace elements were measured in sponges, seawater and sediment in Darwin Harbour (Australia) to test the hypothesis that metals are elevated in sponges closer to a sewage outfall compared with unimpacted sites. Seawater and sediment at the sewage discharge site contained high, but localised, concentrations of phosphorus (P), manganese (Mn), iron(More)
Melioidosis is an often fatal infectious disease affecting humans and animals in tropical regions and is caused by the saprophytic environmental bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Domestic gardens are not only a common source of exposure to soil and thus to B. pseudomallei, but they also have been found to contain more B. pseudomallei than other(More)
Reconstructing the dynamic response of the Antarctic ice sheets to warming during the Last Glacial Termination (LGT; 18,000-11,650 yrs ago) allows us to disentangle ice-climate feedbacks that are key to improving future projections. Whilst the sequence of events during this period is reasonably well-known, relatively poor chronological control has precluded(More)