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Cellular dedifferentiation is the major process underlying totipotency, regeneration, and formation of new stem cell lineages in multicellular organisms. In animals it is often associated with carcinogenesis. Here, we used tobacco protoplasts (plant cells devoid of cell wall) to study changes in chromatin structure in the course of dedifferentiation of(More)
Class I knox genes play an important role in shoot meristem function and are thus involved in the ordered development of stems, leaves, and reproductive organs. To elucidate the mechanism underlying the expression pattern of these homeobox genes, we studied a spontaneous tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) mutant that phenotypically resembles, though is more(More)
MOTIVATION The recognition of specific RNA sequences and structures by proteins is critical to our understanding of RNA processing, gene expression and viral replication. The diversity of RNA structures suggests that RNA recognition is substantially different than that of DNA. RESULTS The atomic coordinates of 41 protein-RNA complexes have been used to(More)
Recoding of UGA from a stop codon to selenocysteine poses a dilemma for the protein translation machinery. In eukaryotes, two factors that are crucial to this recoding process are the mRNA binding protein of the Sec insertion sequence, SBP2, and the specialized elongation factor, EFsec. We sought to determine the subcellular localization of these(More)
Selenocysteine incorporation in eukaryotes occurs cotranslationally at UGA codons via the interactions of RNA-protein complexes, one comprised of selenocysteyl (Sec)-tRNA([Ser]Sec) and its specific elongation factor, EFsec, and another consisting of the SECIS element and SECIS binding protein, SBP2. Other factors implicated in this pathway include two(More)
The recently cloned vanilloid receptor subtype 1 (VR1) is a ligand-gated channel that is activated by capsaicin, protons, and heat. We have attempted to develop a dominant negative isoform by targeting several mutations of VR1 at highly conserved amino acids or at residues of potential functional importance and expressing the mutants in Chinese hamster(More)
BACKGROUND Insects appear to have diverged from both higher and lower organisms in their defense mechanisms against oxidative damage. They do not encode glutathione peroxidases or glutathione reductases, and their thioredoxin reductases exhibit distinct properties from those of higher and lower species. Nonetheless, appropriate balance of anti-oxidants and(More)
Adjuvant arthritis was induced in male rats by injecting bacillus Calmette-Guèrin in mineral oil in a hindpaw. A decrease in bone density, calcium and phosphorus content due to polyarthritis was found in the tibia of the noninjected hind leg. Arthritic rats demonstrated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D deficiency along with constant level of 25-hydroxyvitamin(More)
Glutathione plays an essential role in maintaining cellular redox balance, protecting cells from oxidative stress and detoxifying xenobiotic compounds. Glutathione depletion has been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Cells of neuronal origin are acutely sensitive to glutathione depletion, providing an(More)