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Many fungal pathogens penetrate plant leaves from a specialized cell called an appressorium. The rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe grisea can also penetrate synthetic surfaces such as poly(vinyl chloride). Previous experiments have suggested that penetration requires an elevated appressorial turgor pressure. In the present report we have used nonbiodegradable(More)
The possible involvement of osmotically generated hydrostatic pressure in driving actin-rich extensions of the cell surface was examined using cultures of chick neurons. Estimation of the excess internal osmotic pressure of chick neural tissue by vapor pressure deficit osmometry, and of the excess internal hydrostatic pressure in cultured chick neurons(More)
When hyphae of the water mold Achlya were subjected to osmotic stress, imposed with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-300 or sucrose, turgor pressure fell in proportion to the increase in external osmotic pressure. There was no evidence of turgor regulation, even over a period of days, yet the extension rate was unaffected until turgor was reduced to less than a(More)
PURPOSE To examine changes in brain physiology during a chanting meditation practice using cerebral blood flow single-photon emission computed tomography. METHODS Single-photon emission computed tomography scans were acquired in 11 healthy individuals during either a resting state or meditation practice randomly performed on two separate days. Statistical(More)
The oomyceteSaprolegnia ferax, unlike most walled organisms, does not regulate turgor. When hyphae were subjected to water stress by the addition of sucrose or other solutes to the growth medium, turgor pressure diminished progressively; yet the hyphae continued to extend with deposition of a more plastic apical wall. Even when turgor was no longer(More)
Sporangial development in the zoosporic fungusAchlya intricata has been studied using light microscopy, a plasmolytic technique, KCl-filled microelectrodes and ion-selective microelectrodes. The completion of cleavage (spore delimitation) is accompanied by a change in appearance of the sporangium, loss of turgor and membrane potential, decrease in volume(More)
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