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The Brief Social Phobia Scale (BSPS) is an observer-rated scale designed to assess the characteristic symptoms of social phobia, using three subscales-fear, avoidance, and physiological arousal-which may be combined into a total score. Each of 18 BSPS items is anchored to a 5-point rating scale. Psychometric evaluation of the BSPS in a sample of 275(More)
The cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog) is used to monitor disease progression and treatment efficacy in clinical trials of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using data from a 12-week drug trial, we retrospectively studied the effect of education on ADAS-Cog performance in a group of 444 patients with AD. The effect of(More)
Patients with social phobia who responded well to 6 months of open-label treatment with clonazepam were assigned to receive either continuation treatment (CT) with clonazepam for another 5 months, or to undergo discontinuation treatment (DT) using a clonazepam taper at the rate of 0.25 mg every 2 weeks, with double-blind placebo substitution. Clinical(More)
An observer measure of social phobic symptoms, referred to as the Brief Social Phobia Scale, consists of 11 items, 7 evaluating commonly feared or avoided situations and 4 additional items measuring autonomic distress. Symptoms represented by the scale items are found frequently in social phobia, and the instrument demonstrates acceptable interrater and(More)
Levels of urinary free cortisol were measured in 10 patients with social phobias and in 15 age- and sex-matched normal controls. No differences were found either in cortisol levels or in the ratio of free cortisol to creatinine. These nonsignificant differences between groups do not necessarily rule out the possibility that the(More)
Recent studies have implicated dopamine and the basal ganglia circuits in the pathophysiology of social phobia. Twenty-two patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for social phobia and 22 age- and sex-matched control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI was performed with a 1.5 Tesla General Electric Signa System. No statistically(More)
Proton localized magnetic resonance spectroscopy was studied in 20 social phobics and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Stimulated Echo Acquisition Mode volume element localization was used with chemical shift imaging. Choline and creatine signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were significantly lower in social phobia than in controls in subcortical, thalamic, and(More)
Studies in the neurobiology of social phobia have used neuroendocrine, naturalistic and chemical challenges, pharmacological probes, neurotransmitter system measures, peripheral receptor binding and magnetic resonance measures. Studies of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axes have been largely unrevealing; adrenaline,(More)