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In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes are organized in a random manner. These sensor nodes are mainly deployed in physical environment to gather data and deliver the data to the destination wherever requires. Sensor nodes have limited computational capability, limited bandwidth, energy source and memory. The main challenge in data gathering is to(More)
An energy-efficient smart protocol design is a key challenging problem in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Some of the few existing energy-efficient routing protocols schemes always forward the packets through the minimum energy based optimal route to the sink to minimize energy consumption. It causes an unbalanced distribution of residual energy between(More)
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