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The high level of escapes from Atlantic salmon farms, up to two million fishes per year in the North Atlantic, has raised concern about the potential impact on wild populations. We report on a two-generation experiment examining the estimated lifetime successes, relative to wild natives, of farm, F(1) and F(2) hybrids and BC(1) backcrosses to wild and farm(More)
Postmortem brain studies have shown deficits in the cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in schizophrenic individuals. Expression studies have shown a decrease in the major GABA-synthesizing enzyme (glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) mRNA levels in neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenics relative to controls. In the present(More)
Schizophrenia may result from the concerted action of several pathophysiological factors. This pilot study compared the distribution of measurements of three such putative factors in 11 schizophrenics and their siblings: a neurophysiological deficit in auditory sensory gating, diminished hippocampal volume, and increased catecholamine metabolism. Abnormal(More)
Hypersensitivity to sensory stimulation is a prominent characteristic of both schizophrenia and mania. Neurophysiological recordings suggest a common deficit in a central neuronal sensory gating mechanism which regulates sensitivity to repeated auditory stimuli. Dopamine and norepinephrine are hypothesized to have major roles in these illnesses, but their(More)
Low dose alcohol significantly altered auditory evoked potentials in normal human subjects. Effects of alcohol were studied on the P50 evoked potential wave following click stimulation, which was presented in a conditioning-testing paradigm. The conditioning-testing paradigm uses paired stimuli to demonstrate inhibitory sensory gating, measured as(More)
The sensory disturbance in schizophrenia is often described as an inability to filter out extraneous noise from meaningful sensory inputs. The neurobiological basis of this inability to filter has been examined using auditory evoked potentials, which are computerized averages of the brain's electrical response to sound. The sounds are presented in pairs to(More)
Diminished neuronal response to repeated sensory input is a sensory-gating phenomenon that has been found to be deficient in schizophrenic patients. For example, schizophrenic patients fail to decrease the amplitude of the P50 wave of the auditory evoked potential to the second of paired click stimuli. In some studies, however, normal subjects have also(More)
BACKGROUND Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS), defined as onset of psychotic symptoms by age 12 years, is a rare and severe form of the disorder that seems to be clinically and neurobiologically continuous with the adult disorder. METHODS We studied a rare cohort consisting of 98 probands; 71 of these probands received a DSM-defined diagnosis of(More)
The differences between schizophrenic patients with positive and negative symptoms have been the subject of extensive investigations. Psychophysiologists have proposed that there are elementary auditory sensory processing deficits in schizophrenia, but their prevalence in particular positive or negative subtypes has not been described. Our previous studies(More)
Gating of auditory sensory responsiveness was examined in 75 psychiatric inpatients using a conditioning-testing paradigm with the P50 wave of the auditory evoked response, in which pairs of stimuli are presented to the subject. In previous studies, most schizophrenics did not decrement the second response to the extent seen in normals. Acutely ill(More)